Polyneuropathy - peripheral nerve

May 6, 2010

  • Polyneuropathy - peripheral nerve
  • Treatment

 Polyneuropathy - a neurological disorder, the result of the simultaneous defeat of the plurality of peripheral nerves. Polyneuropathy can be both acute and chronic - in the latter case, the symptoms of the disease develop gradually over a long period of time.

 Polyneuropathy - peripheral nerve

Causes polyneuropathy

Acute neuropathy can be caused by many reasons. Among the most common causes of acute polyneuropathy:

  • Bacterial infections accompanied by toxemia (for example, in diphtheria)
  • Autoimmunity (such as Guillain-Barre syndrome)
  • Poisoning (eg, heavy metals such as lead or mercury)
  • Some medications - including anticonvulsant phenytoin, some antibiotics Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?  Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
   (eg, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides), as well as drugs used in chemotherapy course
  • Some types of cancer - for example, multiple myeloma - accompanied by damage to the nerves

The exact cause of chronic polyneuropathy often can not be determined. The most likely causes of a chronic neurological disorder include:

  • Diabetes
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Reduced thyroid function The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones  The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
  • Liver dysfunction, kidney
  • Some types of cancer (e.g., lung cancer)
  • Excess vitamin B6 (piroksidina)

The most common today cause of chronic polyneuropathy - a very high level of sugar in the blood Blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health  Blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health
 , Characteristic of diabetes in the absence of proper treatment. In this case, a neurological disorder is a separate name - diabetic polyneuropathy.

 Polyneuropathy - peripheral nerve

The symptoms of polyneuropathy

Depending on the cause of neuropathy can affect motor nerves (the nerves that control muscle movement), sensory (sensory) nerves, "responsible" for the person's ability to feel or cranial nerves. From the field of lesions and symptoms depend on the disorder.

Symptoms of acute polyneuropathy (eg Guillain-Barre syndrome) start suddenly, first observed in the legs, then spread to other parts of the body. The first symptoms of acute neuropathy - weakness, tingling or loss of ability to feel. If damaged the nerves that control muscle activity, regulating the breathing process, acute neuropathy can lead to respiratory disorders.

In chronic polyneuropathy often it is broken only by the ability to feel. Usually the first symptoms occur in the legs, sometimes - in his hands: it may be tingling, numbness, burning sensation, loss of limb position sense. Because of the loss of sense of position of limbs, even simple actions - such as walking - it is difficult to achieve. The weakening of the muscles can eventually lead to disability.

The characteristic symptom of neuropathy, emerging with diabetes - a painful tingling or burning sensation in the hands and feet (a condition called distal polyneuropathy).

The pain is often aggravated at night, when you touch the objects, changes in temperature. Polyneuropathy may cause loss of the ability to feel pain and temperature changes.

Polyneuropathy often affects the nerves of the autonomous (vegetative) nervous system that controls body functions reflective (such as salivation, urination, digestion, blood pressure, pulse). Typical symptoms of this form of polyneuropathy - constipation, urinary incontinence / feces, sexual dysfunction, blood pressure fluctuations Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?  Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?
   (more often - orthostatic hypotension, decreased blood pressure when in an upright position).

Acute meningitis - requires immediate hospitalization

November 1, 2013

 acute meningitis
 Acute meningitis can be caused by infection of bacterial infections, viral, fungal origin, as well as some types of protozoa. However, the most serious problem is bacterial meningitis Bacterial meningitis - the reasons for the spread of infection  Bacterial meningitis - the reasons for the spread of infection
 Which may have an adverse outcome if the patient will not be scheduled in a timely manner adequate treatment.


The causes of acute bacterial meningitis

Acute meningitis - an acute inflammation of the meninges. It can be caused by almost any pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. But in practice, acute bacterial meningitis is caused mainly meningococcal, pneumococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae.

Acute meningitis caused by these pathogens is as common manifestations (eg, characteristic of meningitis meningeal syndrome), and distinctive features.


Symptoms of acute meningitis caused by meningococcal infection

Acute meningococcal meningitis Meningococcal meningitis - a manifestation of generalized infection  Meningococcal meningitis - a manifestation of generalized infection
   It begins acutely, with shaking chills, a sharp rise in temperature to 38 - 40˚. The general condition of the patient deteriorates and within a few hours of meningeal symptoms appear.

By meningeal symptoms include severe headache, vomiting, rigidity (stiffness) neck muscles (the patient can not reach his chin chest), meningeal characteristic posture (head thrown back, the body is extended, knees pressed to his stomach), and some other symptoms. In elderly patients onset of the disease may not be as sharp temperature they often rises slightly, and meningeal symptoms appear on the third or fourth day of the disease.

Another manifestation of meningitis is a sharp increase in skin sensitivity and sensitivity to light and sound. On the second or fourth day of the disease appear delirium and psychosis with delusions Brad - not only crazy  Brad - not only crazy
   and hallucinations. At the same time, convulsions may occur. Perhaps the loss of vision and hearing, as well as the development of paresis and paralysis.

With timely treatment appointment as a spinal tap, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy, removal of brain edema and intoxication may complete recovery of the patient. If treatment is not initiated in a timely manner was meningeal phenomena will increase and the patient may die or remain disabled for life.


Symptoms of acute meningitis caused by pneumococcal infection

Pneumococcal meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges  Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
   occurs mainly in infancy and early childhood, characterized by rapid onset and severe. In terms of frequency distribution among bacterial meningitis, he ranks second after meningococcal. Often the disease is preceded by purulent processes in the upper respiratory tract, pneumonia, bronchitis.

More than half of the cases the primary source of infection can not be established. Such primary forms of pneumococcal meningitis occur especially hard to edema and swelling of the brain.

Start meningitis acute: there are chills, severe headache, vomiting, photophobia, increased skin sensitivity, intoxication. Body temperature rises rapidly and reaches the maximum of numbers, but in very severe course of meningitis may remain normal. Pneumococcal disease often occurs as meningoencephalitis with impaired consciousness to the first - the second day, convulsions and focal lesions of the nervous system.

Treatment of pneumococcal meningitis meningococcal similarly. Without treatment, the patient's death comes on the fifth or sixth day.


Symptoms of acute meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (influenza bacillus) is a third frequency spread of acute bacterial meningitis, which mostly ill infants. Influenza, Meningitis often develops on the background of existing bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. Almost all children who become ill with this type of meningitis, lagged in weight are often sick colds.

If meningitis begins on the background of an existing disease, there is a sharp deterioration of the patient, high fever, there is a headache, vomiting and confusion. If meningitis begins among full health, it begins sharply, but then takes a languid, lingering over the change of remissions and exacerbations.

Meningeal symptoms do not appear immediately, and later still appear focal neurological lesion with damage to the facial and oculomotor nerves. It is also possible paresis and convulsions.

Without treatment, the disease lasts for about a month and ends with the death of the patient. When time begun treatment (it is carried out in the same way as the treatment of other bacterial meningitis), the prognosis is favorable, residual effects are rare.

Galina Romanenko

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  • types of meningitis