Acute meningitis can be caused by infection of bacterial infections, viral, fungal origin, as well as some types of protozoa. However, the most serious problem is bacterial meningitis
Bacterial meningitis - the reasons for the spread of infection
Which may have an adverse outcome if the patient will not be scheduled in a timely manner adequate treatment.
The causes of acute bacterial meningitis
Acute meningitis - an acute inflammation of the meninges. It can be caused by almost any pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. But in practice, acute bacterial meningitis is caused mainly meningococcal, pneumococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae.
Acute meningitis caused by these pathogens is as common manifestations (eg, characteristic of meningitis meningeal syndrome), and distinctive features.
Symptoms of acute meningitis caused by meningococcal infection
Acute meningococcal meningitis
Meningococcal meningitis - a manifestation of generalized infection
It begins acutely, with shaking chills, a sharp rise in temperature to 38 - 40˚. The general condition of the patient deteriorates and within a few hours of meningeal symptoms appear.
By meningeal symptoms include severe headache, vomiting, rigidity (stiffness) neck muscles (the patient can not reach his chin chest), meningeal characteristic posture (head thrown back, the body is extended, knees pressed to his stomach), and some other symptoms. In elderly patients onset of the disease may not be as sharp temperature they often rises slightly, and meningeal symptoms appear on the third or fourth day of the disease.
Another manifestation of meningitis is a sharp increase in skin sensitivity and sensitivity to light and sound. On the second or fourth day of the disease appear delirium and psychosis with delusions
Brad - not only crazy
and hallucinations. At the same time, convulsions may occur. Perhaps the loss of vision and hearing, as well as the development of paresis and paralysis.
With timely treatment appointment as a spinal tap, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy, removal of brain edema and intoxication may complete recovery of the patient. If treatment is not initiated in a timely manner was meningeal phenomena will increase and the patient may die or remain disabled for life.
Symptoms of acute meningitis caused by pneumococcal infection
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
occurs mainly in infancy and early childhood, characterized by rapid onset and severe. In terms of frequency distribution among bacterial meningitis, he ranks second after meningococcal. Often the disease is preceded by purulent processes in the upper respiratory tract, pneumonia, bronchitis.
More than half of the cases the primary source of infection can not be established. Such primary forms of pneumococcal meningitis occur especially hard to edema and swelling of the brain.
Start meningitis acute: there are chills, severe headache, vomiting, photophobia, increased skin sensitivity, intoxication. Body temperature rises rapidly and reaches the maximum of numbers, but in very severe course of meningitis may remain normal. Pneumococcal disease often occurs as meningoencephalitis with impaired consciousness to the first - the second day, convulsions and focal lesions of the nervous system.
Treatment of pneumococcal meningitis meningococcal similarly. Without treatment, the patient's death comes on the fifth or sixth day.
Symptoms of acute meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus influenzae (influenza bacillus) is a third frequency spread of acute bacterial meningitis, which mostly ill infants. Influenza, Meningitis often develops on the background of existing bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. Almost all children who become ill with this type of meningitis, lagged in weight are often sick colds.
If meningitis begins on the background of an existing disease, there is a sharp deterioration of the patient, high fever, there is a headache, vomiting and confusion. If meningitis begins among full health, it begins sharply, but then takes a languid, lingering over the change of remissions and exacerbations.
Meningeal symptoms do not appear immediately, and later still appear focal neurological lesion with damage to the facial and oculomotor nerves. It is also possible paresis and convulsions.
Without treatment, the disease lasts for about a month and ends with the death of the patient. When time begun treatment (it is carried out in the same way as the treatment of other bacterial meningitis), the prognosis is favorable, residual effects are rare.