- Prevention of meningitis - reasonable precautions
Prevention of meningitis - is not easy. The problem is that this disease may be caused by different infectious agents, so prevention must be different. Nevertheless, the combination obschegigienicheskih compliance rules, isolation of patients, and in some cases, vaccination significantly reduces the risk of disease.
Meningitis usually develops as a result of various infections. Bacteria or viruses that are potential causes of meningitis, can be spread by coughing, sneezing, kissing, sharing eating utensils, toothbrushes
Toothbrushes - make no mistake in choosing
The risk of infection increases if you live or work with someone who is sick with meningitis.
What is meningitis and how they can get sick
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges. Meningitis can be caused by an infectious character and the various infectious agents - bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal or parasitic. Meet and non-infectious meningitis, starting, for example, against the background of a tumor or brain injury.
How are infected with meningitis? Ways of infection meningitis may be different. Most infectious meningitis simultaneously transmitted by airborne droplets and contact (dirty hands and objects), or by inhalation of dust contaminated with animal feces. These are called primary meningitis.
If the disease starts again in another body, and then a variety of bullets (mostly through the blood and lymph if) hits the cranial cavity, it is called secondary. Secondary meningitis most often develop on the background of diseases of the respiratory tract and upper respiratory tract.
Who is most at risk of contracting meningitis
Can you get meningitis? It is. Meningitis can get sick any person - this can not be insured. Nevertheless, there are certain contingent of people, the risk is higher than that of other people is:
- children under five, teenagers up to 25 years of age and the elderly;
- Children are constantly attending summer closed ponds - ponds, small lakes - increased the risk of infection of enterovirus infection;
- in contact with an acute respiratory infection, accompanied by a cough, runny nose, sneezing - many of meningitis begin with catarrhal symptoms;
- in contact with the sick intestinal infection - enterovirus infection can begin with diarrhea;
- do not observe the rules of personal hygiene - in order to protect yourself against certain types of meningitis, you need to wash their hands regularly with soap and water, thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables, enveloping them after washing with boiling water before use;
- do not observe hygiene dwellings - carry infection causing meningitis
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
It may be domestic mice, cockroaches and flies;
- living in dormitories and barracks;
- Patients purulent tonsillitis, sinusitis and chronic otitis and other diseases of upper respiratory tract;
- Patients with severe depression of immunity (immunodeficiency);
- victims with head injuries;
- suffered a rupture of the spleen.
How to protect yourself and your loved ones from meningitis
How to protect yourself from meningitis? How to prevent meningitis? You can protect against meningitis, above all, respecting certain rules:
- if there was contact with a patient with meningitis, for example, someone in the inner circle contracted meningitis infectious origin, the patient should be hospitalized immediately, and if possible to limit contact with others who also have been in contact with the patient; Regular hand washing and personal hygiene;
- if your destination an outbreak of meningitis (the most frequent outbreaks of enteroviral meningitis), you should try to visit places less crowded (especially with kids), and after returning home, always wash hands with soap and water; It is also important to thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables;
- if an outbreak of meningitis occurred in the dormitory or in the barracks, when you exit your room is to wear a surgical mask on the face - it can be bought at the pharmacy to make mud of four layers of cheesecloth;
- be sure to promptly treat all diseases of upper respiratory tract; if they still went into the chronic stage, it is necessary to conduct regular anti-treatment;
- in residential and office buildings should be destroyed all the rodents and insects and to closely monitor the hygiene of the home;
- if there was a close contact with the sick, sick with meningitis bacterial (meningococcal, pneumococcal, influenza, meningitis, etc.), in some cases, for the prevention of the disease some people prescribe antibiotics;
- When traveling to exotic countries, where common fungal species meningitis, doctors sometimes recommend taking antifungals (eg, fluconazole); carriers of meningitis in these cases can be animals, and insects, so you need to try not to come into contact with them at all times and to use insect repellents.
For the prevention of meningitis:
- Wash your hands. Careful hand washing is very important to avoid contamination. Teach your children to wash hands frequently, especially before eating, after a stay in a public place, and after they touch the animals.
- Watch out for your health. Keep your immune system, normal resting, working out regularly and adhering to a healthy diet rich in fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
- Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze. This simple rule to be followed by people who care about themselves and others.
Since meningitis is a lot of potential pathogens that can not protect themselves from it by using one common vaccinations. Some forms of bacterial meningitis
Bacterial meningitis - the reasons for the spread of infection
It can be prevented by means of the following vaccines:
- A vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type B. In some countries such vaccinations are mandatory; in Russia, it can be done on their own;
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. It is recommended for children with chronic diseases of the heart, lungs, and cancer patients;
- Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. This vaccination is particularly recommended for children and young people with a weakened immune system and / or chronic illnesses;
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Such a vaccination can be done for children over 9 months;
- Vaccines against measles
Measles in children - may cause serious complications
, Mumps and rubella.
Some travelers may be recommended the vaccine against meningococcal bacteria Groups A, C, W135 and Y. Vaccination is strongly recommended for those who wish to travel in zones of increased risk of meningitis, for example, in some areas of Africa. In particular, the vaccine is needed, so the hike and / or for more than one month living with the locals in the provincial territories participating in the Hajj in Saudi Arabia, or performing seasonal work in the regions, where the Hajj.