Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
(right - meningoencephalitis) - a serious disease that can be caused by various infectious agents. Furthermore, meningoencephalitis can be a complication of virtually all infectious diseases and local inflammation.
Meningoencephalitis - Causes of disease
Meningoencephalitis - a disease that is characterized by the simultaneous defeat of the membranes and brain tissue. Meningoencephalitis can be primary, that is developing in the right area of the brain as a result of the implementation of various types of infectious agents (eg, acute meningoencephalitis seasonal two-wave) and secondary (for example, mumps or herpes infection).
Meningoencephalitis may complicate the course of many bacterial, viral or fungal infections as well as infections caused by protozoa, particularly if the patient is lowered immunity. Often meningoencephalitis is a complication of chronic purulent diseases of upper respiratory tract (eg, suppurative otitis media or sinusitis) or periodontal tissues (purulent inflammation, such as dental caries).
There are also rheumatic and meningoencephalitis after vaccination with an infectious-allergic, allergic and autoimmune (allergic to the body's own tissues) in nature.
The symptoms of meningoencephalitis
Symptoms meningitis encephalitis may vary - they depend on the cause of the disease, the nature and extent of the inflammatory process. When the primary infection or infectious and allergic processes usually has a prodromal period - the period of the precursors of the disease. During this period the fore signs of general intoxication - headaches, weakness, lethargy, loss of appetite, muscle aches and joint pain, sensory disturbances, and so on. Prodromal period usually lasts from a few hours to one to two weeks, and proceeds in an acute stage.
In the acute stage, symptoms are distinguished general and neurological symptoms. Symptoms include general sharp rise in temperature, chills, malaise, sometimes catarrhal phenomena (runny nose, cough, sore throat).
In the acute stage of the disease neurological symptoms include cerebral, meningeal and focal symptoms of varying severity in different combinations. Neurological symptoms may develop slowly, gradually, and can very quickly and it speaks of the rapid defeat of the brain.
For cerebral symptoms include varying degrees of impaired consciousness from a stupor to coma. Sometimes developed acute psychosis with psychomotor agitation, delirium
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and hallucinations. Characterized by sleep disorders
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(drowsiness or insomnia).
Meningeal syndrome develops during stimulation membranes of the brain and manifests severe headache, vomiting, general sensitization (skin to light and sound stimuli), the appearance of the patient specific meningeal posture (head thrown back, his knees are given to the stomach), neck stiffness ( due numb neck patient can not lower his head and chin to get the chest), and others.
Against the background of general cerebral and meningeal symptoms in the acute phase of focal neurological symptoms appear, the nature of which in various forms of meningoencephalitis different. These may be symptoms stem from the dysfunction of the third cranial nerve, the development of ptosis (drooping of the century), diplopia (double vision), strabismus
Strabismus - how to find the cause?
, Pupillary disorders. A frequent symptom of meningoencephalitis are vestibular disorders in the form of dizziness, and impaired coordination of movements.
For some types of meningoencephalitis characterized by sluggish paralysis of muscles of the neck and shoulder girdle, paralysis and paresis of the upper and lower extremities. In severe bulbar disorders also occur - changes characteristic lesions of the nuclei of some cranial nerves and vital centers in the medulla oblongata. Bulbar disorders manifest themselves in violations of swallowing, speech, activity of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Recent violations can result in death of the patient.
The acute course of the disease can result in as complete recovery of the patient, and recovery with certain residual lesions of the central nervous system.
Diagnosis and treatment of meningoencephalitis
The basis of diagnosis and treatment of this disease is a lumbar puncture. During this manipulation shell pierced the spinal cord and spinal fluid taken part. During the puncture, the doctor draws attention to the pressure at which the liquid flows. For meningoencephalitis is characterized by high intracranial pressure. During the study, the cerebrospinal fluid reveals the presence of infectious and inflammatory and infectious agent.
A lumbar puncture is also a means of emergency - the removal of a certain volume of cerebrospinal fluid helps reduce intracranial pressure and improve the condition of the patient.
Furthermore, prescribed drugs suppressing life activity of infectious agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals), as well as symptomatic treatment for the removal of the main symptoms.