Prevention of meningitis - reasonable precautions - Tools
November 8th, 2013
- Prevention of meningitis - reasonable precautions
Means for prevention of meningitis
Meningitis (from the Greek. Meninx - mater) - inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by various viruses and bacteria, and even fungi. The best method for preventing meningitis is determined by age, health and the environment. Unfortunately, there is no universal means of protection against this dangerous disease, but can help reduce the risk of vaccination and compliance with reasonable precautions. Learn more about the prevention of meningitis.
Prevention of meningitis: risk category
From the various types of meningitis no one is immune. However, medical studies have shown that certain age groups are more at risk of the disease, in particular:
- Children under 5 years
- Adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 25 years
- Adults over 55 years
Studies have also shown that some disease or disorder (e.g., rupture of the spleen, chronic illness or an illness of the immune system), increase susceptibility to meningitis.
Also, scientists established a connection between bacterial meningitis
Bacterial meningitis - the reasons for the spread of infection
and cochlear implants that are used in the impairment or loss of hearing. However, out of 60 000 people who use cochlear implants, all 90 patients with meningitis, so this relationship is probably not direct.
Because some causes of meningitis can be passed around, the outbreak of the disease is most often seen in the dense crowds. Thus, an increased risk of meningitis are subject to students living in the dormitory, and the soldiers living in barracks. However, even if you find one or more risk factors does not mean that you are bound to get sick, because meningitis
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
- A rare disease.
Vaccination helps prevent many diseases that can cause meningitis. The most common vaccinations against meningitis do for children at an early age. Here are the basic vaccines that prevent the occurrence of bacterial and viral meningitis:
- A vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type B, preventing infections causing pneumonia
Pneumonia - Symptoms and Causes
, Meningitis and other diseases. This vaccine is administered to children aged from 2 months to 5 years, and children older than 5 years old suffering from certain diseases. Previously, the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type B is the most common causative agent of bacterial meningitis, but thanks to this vaccine such cases were rare.
- Meningococcal vaccine protects against some disease-causing bacteria causes of meningitis. It is usually given to children aged 11-12 years. This vaccination is also recommended freshmen living in a dormitory, soldiers, recruits, ill-defined diseases of the immune system, as well as tourists traveling to countries where meningitis epidemics occur periodically, for example, in some African countries.
- Pneumococcal vaccine also protects against bacteria causes of meningitis. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines. Pneumococcal vaccine conjugation typically administered to children younger than two years old, and children aged 2 to 5 years, who belong to a risk group. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years. Polysaccharide vaccine is administered as a middle-aged adults with weakened immune systems and certain chronic diseases.
- Triple vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella are usually administered to children. It protects against meningitis, which may arise as a result of measles and rubella.
- Varicella vaccine since varicella infection can potentially lead to disease viral meningitis
Viral meningitis - not uncommon
In addition to vaccination, doctors recommend the use of the following means for the prevention of meningitis.
- Start with the obvious: try to refrain from contact with patients with meningitis. Some types of meningitis transmitted by airborne droplets, such as by kissing, coughing, sneezing, as well as the sharing of personal hygiene, such as toothbrush, or towel. If your family has meningitis patients, try to isolate them from the rest of the family.
- Always wash hands with soap after contact with a patient with meningitis.
- After close contact with meningitis patients consult a doctor. Depending on the proximity of the contact and the type of meningitis you will need to take antibiotics to prevent the disease.
- Be particularly careful when traveling in potentially dangerous areas. Some types of meningitis are carried by animals and insects, so try to keep them as far as possible, and do not forget to use mosquito repellent.
Ischemic stroke - the most common cause of death - Treatment
November 23, 2014
- Ischemic stroke - the most common cause of death
Treatment of ischemic stroke
Treatment begins with the earliest possible hospitalization in a specialized neurological department, intensive care unit. First of all, the survey is conducted in order to clarify the patient's diagnosis (hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke) and detect thrombus. The best method of diagnosis in this case is a magnetic resonance imaging - MRI, which you can see the blood clot. Simultaneously, blood tests, special importance is blood clotting.
If the patient is accurately diagnosed with ischemic stroke, after which there has been no more than two hours, revealed a blood clot in a blood vessel, and thus the state of the blood coagulation system allows you to enter drugs that dissolve the clot, he held thrombolysis. This manipulation, which is the administration of drugs that dissolve blood clots.
At the same time patients received drug treatment to eliminate violations that threaten the patient's life. This treatment of cardiovascular disorders, respiratory disorders, maintaining water and salt balance and acid-base balance, the prevention of cerebral edema, and so on.
The structure of medical treatment in the first hours after a stroke also includes drugs that improve blood flow to the brain, relieves spasms of blood vessels, contributing to the development of collateral (bypass damaged blood vessels) blood circulation, normalization of the blood coagulation system, increase resistance (resistance) of brain tissue to a lack of oxygen and so forth.
Treatment after ischemic stroke and involves adherence. Immediately after the stroke, patients must comply with strict bed rest. While improving the condition of the patient, and after the elimination of the risk of spreading a stroke patient is gradually expanding mode, allow the beginning to roll over on its side, then up under medical supervision. Enter massage and exercise
Myths about exercise: do not believe
. Gradually, the patient goes to the free mode.
Power in ischemic stroke
If the patient has impaired swallowing, in the first few days he was given only juice and sweet tea. If the patient can not swallow, it is fed through a tube. After moving to restore swallowing digestible food: soups and vegetable broths cereals, dairy products, low-fat semi-liquid cheese, porridge, gruel and so on. Food intake - 4-6 times a day in small portions.
Meals after an ischemic stroke should be part of rehabilitation. Since ischemic stroke more often develops in the presence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, anti-cholesterol diet should wear character. Anti-cholesterol diet after ischemic stroke - this is an exception from the diet of fatty animal foods, fried, spicy, smoked foods, sweets, baking, carbonated sugary drinks and alcohol. Meals should be frequent and fractional.
Recovery After Ischemic Stroke
After a stroke, usually goes a long recovery period. After intensive care treatment is carried out in the neurological department of the hospital, and then in an outpatient setting, and finally, in a nursing home.
Restoring speech after ischemic stroke requires a medical treatment (drugs, improving brain blood circulation, reduces the need for oxygen neurons, improves metabolic processes in the brain and mental abilities), and regular classes with a speech therapist
Speech - when to resort to the help of a doctor
. Recovery of sight after an ischemic stroke also requires medication and regular use of special exercises for eyes
Gymnastics for the eyes: improves vision
Massage and exercise after ischemic stroke
Gymnastics and massages are carried out from the very first days after the stroke. Initially, this cautious breathing exercises, individual passive movements performed by a paramedic. Then, as the recovery gymnastics after ischemic stroke begins to include the active movement of the patient with a slowly increasing load.
Revitalizing massage after ischemic stroke improves blood circulation and metabolism
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
in the altered tissues, prevents the development of contractures.
Prevention of ischemic stroke - a follow-up of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, their compliance with all recommendations of the physician. Equally important is the correct mode of the day of such patients and a healthy balanced diet.