- Glaucoma - a perspective possible blindness
- Intraocular pressure
- Risk factors
Glaucoma - a group that includes a variety of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and, in some cases, to loss of vision. Such damage is often, but not always, are caused by an abnormally high intraocular pressure.
Glaucoma is the second leading causes of vision loss. It can cause damage to a person slowly and occasionally her symptoms only when the disease is in the later stages of development. In the most common type of glaucoma - open angle glaucoma, for a long time there are no symptoms other than a gradual loss of vision.
Early diagnosis and treatment can minimize or prevent damage to the optic nerve and to limit associated with glaucoma, vision loss. It is very important to be screened regularly by an ophthalmologist, in particular, to measure the intraocular pressure.
The two most common types of glaucoma - open-and-closure glaucoma - a completely different symptoms. Primary open-angle glaucoma symptoms are:
- The gradual deterioration of peripheral vision, usually in both eyes.
- Tunnel vision - in the later stages of the disease.
Symptoms of acute angle-closure glaucoma:
- Severe pain in the eyes
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sudden blurred vision often - in low light
- Blurred vision
- Halos around lights
- Red whites of the eyes
When at least two symptoms of acute angle-closure glaucoma should immediately seek medical care.
Primary glaucoma is called (of any type), if the reason for its development is unknown. Secondary glaucoma develops as a result of eye injuries, inflammations, tumors, diabetes, and also in the late stages of cataract. In secondary glaucoma in a patient, along with the usual symptoms of glaucoma, and symptoms observed major violations.
Since the most noticeable symptoms of glaucoma
Symptoms of glaucoma - it is important to notice in time
It appears only in the later stages of its development, need to undergo regular medical examinations in order to prevent this, and many other diseases.
Experts recommend to be tested every three to five years in patients older than forty years old, who do not have risk factors for glaucoma, and every year - people over sixty years of age, regardless of risk factors.
For reasons that are not yet fully understood physicians, increased intraocular pressure is usually associated with damage to the optic nerve, which is characteristic of glaucoma. Pressure increases due to accumulation of too much aqueous humor, intraocular fluid, or which is constantly secreted in the anterior portion of the eye.
Aqueous humor is usually derived from the eye through a special system of drainage - where touching the iris and cornea. When the system is not working properly, the aqueous humor is displayed more slowly than usual, and the pressure inside the eye rises.
Who gets glaucoma
Most often, glaucoma occurs in people older than 40 years, although it may be ill and members of other age groups, including - pre-school children and even babies.
Glaucoma is a family history increases the likelihood of developing this disorder in the future.
In addition, the risk of glaucoma is elevated in people with diabetes, poor vision, as well as those who are taking certain medications, such as prednisone.
Primary open-angle glaucoma
In primary open angle glaucoma the drainage angle between the iris and the cornea remains open, but the drains or the trabecular meshwork, partially blocked microscopic particles, and the outflow of the aqueous humor is too slow. This leads to fluid retention and increased pressure within the eye. Damage to the optic nerve occurs so slowly and painlessly that a significant loss of vision can occur before the person is aware of the problem.
This violation of the iris bulges forward, which is why the drainage angle is narrowed or blocked. Intraocular pressure thus increases faster than closed-angle glaucoma. The most common attack begins suddenly - an acute angle-closure glaucoma
Angle-closure glaucoma - possibly severe course of the disease
But sometimes this disease is chronic. Angle-closure glaucoma often develops in people who are born abnormally narrow drainage angle. However, this slight deviation can remain undetected for a lifetime, if not cause any problems.
However, the sudden dilation of the pupils in people with narrow drainage angle may be a trigger of acute angle-closure glaucoma. Pupils can expand due to darkness, low light, stress, arousal and certain drugs. For example, dilated pupils cause some antihistamines (cetirizine and desloratadine), tricyclic antidepressants, eye drops, drugs.
Glaucoma with normal intraocular pressure
Patients with this type of glaucoma, the optic nerve is damaged, but the intraocular pressure is within limits. The exact cause of this type of glaucoma is unknown. Possibly, the disease is a consequence of an increased sensitivity of the optic nerve, or disorders of blood flow to the optic nerve. The reason for the limited blood flow can be atherosclerosis or other diseases, blood circulation.
Congenital, infantile and juvenile glaucoma
Sometimes glaucoma is diagnosed in infants, older children and adolescents. In rare cases, children are born with glaucoma - a congenital glaucoma
Congenital glaucoma - the boys get sick more often girls
. It can also develop in the early months and years of life (infantile glaucoma), and after the age of 4-5 years (juvenile glaucoma). Usually, children, there are no symptoms of the disease. However, they may already be damaged to the optic nerve caused by primary or secondary glaucoma
Secondary glaucoma - against the backdrop of another disease
When pigment glaucoma pigment granules from the iris accumulate in the drainage channels (trabecular meshwork), slowing or blocking the fluid filter. Physical activity, such as jogging, sometimes lead to the fact that the pigment particles in the channels violate any fluid that causes a transient increase in intraocular pressure.