Electroshock - medieval torture or modern medical procedure?

December 29, 2013

   Electroshock or electroconvulsive therapy - a procedure in which the patient passes through the brain electrical charge that causes brief seizure. It is believed that ECT changes the biochemistry of the brain, so that can quickly disappear some symptoms of mental disorders. ECT often helps when many other means are powerless.

The negative association that many people associated with electric shocks, based on information about the early methods of treatment using electric shock when he used a strong electric current was applied and prolonged exposure without anesthesia, resulting in memory loss Loss of memory - not only in telenovelas  Loss of memory - not only in telenovelas
 , Bone fractures and other serious side effects. Today, ECT is much safer, and it is performed under general anesthesia. While it still can cause some side effects, doctors can use a modern electric shock, extracting maximum benefit from the procedure, and reducing risks to a minimum.


Why use electroshock

With electric, you can achieve rapid and significant relief of severe symptoms of mental disorders. It can be very effective, for example, for people who have serious suicidal intent, or for those suffering from severe delusions. Currently electroshock used in the treatment of the following disorders:

  • Severe depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood  Depression - a little more than a bad mood
 Especially if the disease is associated with psychosis, the desire to commit suicide or refusal of food. Depression, which is not treatable by other methods;
  • A state of extreme euphoria, excitement or hyperactivity, which sometimes occurs in bipolar disorder. Other signs of this condition can be an impaired ability to make decisions, impulsive or risky behavior, drug abuse, and psychosis;
  • Catatonia - a condition characterized by the very slow-moving, or rapid involuntary movements, speech disorders and other symptoms. This condition may occur in schizophrenia Schizophrenia - to blame civilization  Schizophrenia - to blame civilization
   and some other psychiatric disorders. In some cases, catatonia is caused by physical diseases.

Irritability or aggression in people with dementia. ECT may be used if these violations have a negative impact on quality of life, and they can not cope in other ways.

In some cases, electric shock is used:

  • During pregnancy, when you can not take medication because of the high likelihood of harm to the child;
  • For the treatment of the elderly in whom drugs cause too pronounced side effects;
  • In cases where the patients themselves prefer electroshock medical treatment;
  • If ECT previously been successfully used to treat patients.


Side effects

In general, an electric shock is safe, but in some cases it may cause the following side effects:

  • Confusion. Immediately after the application of electric shocks in humans may occur confusion, which lasts from few minutes to several hours. In this state, people may not know where and why they are, and this can cause quite severe anxiety. So within a few hours after electroconvulsive therapy patient would normally be advised to just relax. In rare cases, the confusion persists for several days or more. Typically, this symptom is most pronounced in older people.
  • Memory impairment. Electroshock effect on memory in several ways. Some patients after electric shock can be difficult to remember what it was before the start of therapy - a condition called retrograde amnesia. Someone becomes difficult to remember the events that took place a few weeks, months or even years ago. In some cases, people begin to forget the events occurring after electroconvulsive therapy. Typically, the memory is completely restored a few months.
  • The physical side effects. Within a few hours after the application of electric shocks, the patient may present symptoms such as nausea Nausea - there may be problems with the nervous system  Nausea - there may be problems with the nervous system
 , Vomiting, pain in the jaw muscle pain and spasms. These side effects can be relieved with medication. In addition, under the influence of electric shock increases heart rate and raises blood pressure, which in rare cases can lead to heart problems.


How is the procedure

Since electroconvulsive therapy is performed under general anesthesia, the morning before the procedure can not eat and drink .  Immediately prior to the procedure, the doctor can perform a quick inspection to check the work of the heart and lungs .  Then, the patient is administered an anesthetic - this method is used for intravenous infusion .  In addition, it uses a muscle relaxant, which minimizes the muscle contraction and the risk of various injuries .  When anesthesia will act, the patient's head is applied to the electrodes, through which the cord is passed an electric current causing seizure, which usually lasts less than sixty seconds .  External signs of seizures because of muscle relaxants are virtually absent, but the activity of the brain during the procedure varies greatly .  Usually, the whole procedure takes only a few minutes - soon after the seizure ends, anesthesia gradually cease to have effect, and the patient is placed in a chamber, where he will stay for a few hours .

Many patients notice significant relief of symptoms after two or three sessions of electroshock therapy, but full recovery may require longer treatment. Even after the symptoms disappear totally, it is necessary to continue treatment to prevent relapse - but at this stage is typically not used electroshock therapy and antidepressants or other drugs.

6 personality disorders caused by internet

September 6, 2009

  • 6 personality disorders caused by internet
  • Masochist syndrome

 Six personality disorders caused by internet
   The Internet is full of crazies. It's common knowledge. Another truth is - a worldwide network drives people crazy. Dude, you have to call on one of the forums jerk just because you do not have this game console as it has hardly moved the boundaries of politeness when meeting in real life. And anyway, it's time, it's time to update the information in older textbooks on psychology - recently added to the list of mental disorders at least a dozen new products, some of which owes its existence to the Internet. So what are the disorders may appear in a completely normal person, it is worth it to open a web browser?

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

№6 - Internet intermittent explosive disorder (it is the same "disease-hysterical psychopaths")

At first glance, there is nothing abnormal - in serial killers. For many hours or even days, they can carry light conversations with other participants of the forum, to sparkle with wit or pour jokes in the comments. But it is worth some little things upset the delicate mental balance - and they begin to pour selective swearing like a man possessed, and send the most terrible curses on the heads of their opponents, their relatives, ancestors and descendants to the seventh generation.

  In real life, it is called ...

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

Intermittent explosive disorder

In the real world by "intermittent explosive disorder" refers to a condition characterized by mood instability. Explosive psychopaths - these are people who boil on the most insignificant occasion. For example, forgot to bring the diner ordered fries and they are satisfied with the scandal of hysteria and loud curses as if their whole family has carved a maniac. Explosive psychopaths are prone to uncontrollable aggression in the most unexpected situations.

In real life, this disorder are subject to only 6% of the world's population, but the World Wide Web explosive psychopaths are found almost every website and forum. Nothing hurts them more than question their authority. Here is a typical "conversation" with the explosive psychopath:

EP: Hi guys. So I immediately processed pictures in Photoshop, what do you say?

The normal Internet user: You could remove the lens flare and a little trim around the edges.

EP: Die, fucking moron! I have their reward for their work, when you're a foot under the table walked bastard. Shut up, talentless nobodies.

(And this goes on for a few hours, about 2000 words).

Funny and at the same time alarming example of intermittent explosive disorder on the Internet not so long ago caused a small scandal in the United States. The assistant of one of the members of Congress received a letter from a stranger, which is not called her full name, "Elizabeth" and abbreviated - "Liz." In response, an angry assistant send about 20 messages, which demanded an apology. And to be called only by the full name!

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

Why is this happening on the Internet?

The first reason is obvious: in real life, we tend to inhibit aggression because of fear that we can get physical resistance. The second reason is also quite clear: the Internet, which looks, a prestigious job, income and imposing designer rags no surprise and no one's respect not conquer, we have to build a reputation (and then defend it) "the old cowboy way", ie, as has been done once in the Wild West: shoot anyone who dares to put it into question.

But there is a third, less obvious, reason is deprived of voice and body language, we can not express the disappointment, irritation or light anger, without fear that the person to whom they are directed negative emotions Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code  Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code
 They may simply not notice them! So we have to exaggerate our emotions, they repeatedly reinforce that we heard an imaginary opponent.

But the surprising thing is that online hysterics who shouted insults CAPS with lots of exclamation marks, often at this time quietly sitting somewhere in an office and are pleasant conversation with colleagues.

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

№5 - Low tolerance to frustration on the forums (it is "a fanatic syndrome page refresh")

They create a new thread in the forum and write the perfect post (at least in their opinion). The news of this beautiful, intelligent, funny and incredibly original post should immediately fly around the Internet, to lead all sorts of ratings and make the author of a folk hero! This post is so good that every five seconds, the author checks whether the page is refreshed, whether the responses and comments. Having more or less intelligible response, he immediately scribbling an answer, and again waits and fanatically refreshes the page.

If the perfect position and remained unnoticed for five minutes - an eternity by his standards - are not willing to answer, he continues the theme: "What, no one comment on? !!! Hey, people ?! ".

These types of love to post their stories on news sites like Digg and Reddit, and spend all day, constantly updating the page, hoping to see at least some comments on his story.

  In real life, it is called ...

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

Low frustration tolerance

Low frustration tolerance observed in the case when the recovery of psychological comfort people require immediate gratification of their desires and chooses addiction. This is similar to the behavior of any child of seven years, which is to get the toy, arranges a tantrum, crying and screaming until until it receives the desired. But unlike a child, a person with low frustration tolerance can not calm the cuff.

He is so obsessed with short-term desire, everything else loses its value. Life seemed to stop. It's kind of a form of procrastination - putting off from day to day obsession with something (usually quite small) supersedes all other interests: privacy, job, hobby. As a result, the head of threatened dismissal, she does not call the second week, and the dog whines doom and pees in a corner - it is not already walking their week. And all because someone can not tear myself away from the computer!

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

Why is this happening on the Internet?

In the history of mankind it was not yet such a tool instant gratification as the Internet. Our parents complained that television killed interest in the real life and blunted the attention, but at least the TV program begins and ends at a certain time, not when we want. On the Internet, everything is different: Here you can see what you want, whenever you want, with breaks, with rewinding. In short, all our services.

Therefore, every day we are less patient - the Internet does not have the patience. We demand an immediate response. And why not? For just five dollars can be ordered online striptease!

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

№4 - Internet Munchausen syndrome (also known as "syndrome of a victim of circumstances")

Almost every forum there are people who behave quite normally: comment, write posts. And suddenly, like a bolt from the blue, a tragedy happens. They have reported the death of a dog, a family member or close friend. Or that the terminally ill, and a few months left to live. And all forum users to immediately begin to pity them, to provide the attention and loudly lamenting. Send cards and comforting hearts.

It takes several months. And suddenly out of the blue comes another tragedy: the best friend raped or paralyzed in an accident (or a combination of both). A few months later, his father died. Second time.

And here you are, and begins to suspect that something was wrong. One of two things: either over a person tends ancient family curse, and he has a very, very rich imagination.

  In real life, it is called ...

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

Munchausen Syndrome

Munchausen's syndrome - a mental disorder in which a person is faking illness or at the symptoms, in order to attract the attention of others. At the heart of Munchausen syndrome - the same need for attention, as in the above described disorders, but in this case the person is looking for positive attention and sympathy. In addition, the Internet does not have to be sick to declare their disease.

In real life, these people can maintain the illusion of the disease for many years, since the society in such situations are not too encouraging skepticism. When a person declares his illness, doubt is not accepted - because if it's true, you'll look at least ridiculously.

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

Why is this happening on the Internet?

Even in reality, you can pretend to be sick for a long time, and only on the Internet - and even more so! After all, the Internet is almost impossible to verify anything. To call a universal sympathy in the network, not necessarily be a complete liar - you need to be able to type and register at any forum.

One of the most prominent manifestations of Munchausen syndrome on the Internet - Casey Nicole case, 19-year-old girl suffering from leukemia Leukemia - it is not a sentence  Leukemia - it is not a sentence
 Which turned out to be a fictional character invented by 40-year-old spinster Debbie Swenson. "Casey" every day for two years did write in his online magazine about how fighting for his life. Then it is still "dead", then deception was revealed - in the newspapers there was no obituary.

But even after the "death" Swenson could invent another character. Perhaps at this moment somewhere slowly "dying" another "Casey." On the Internet, where anonymity is protected by our nicknames, you can create an entire colony of different characters who will argue among themselves, start a relationship, and that impunity can "kill" when you get bored.

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

№3 - Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (it is the same "linguistic Nazism")

We reserve the right to make fun of those who wrote the posts of 500 words in length with a bunch of grammatical errors. But writing completely without errors and typos is almost impossible! And if you make a small mistake or miss a comma, and in return get a lecture on grammar, it is hardly normal. This means that you ran into a Nazi, standing up for the purity of the language.

  In real life, it is called ...

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OKRL)

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder should not be confused obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Yes, they have a lot in common - for example, an obsession with something - but there are also differences, for example, the letter "L" in the title. In addition, people suffering OKRL, do not feel the need to perform rituals, which is characteristic of OCD patients (for example, they feel that if you do not open the door four times or twice will not look in the mirror before leaving the house, the day will not be possible).

The fact is that people with OKRL unreasonably inflated and strict requirements to perform certain tasks. Strict to such an extent that their violation can lead to aggression from their side.

 6 personality disorders caused by internet

Why is this happening on the Internet?

The basis of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in real life - irrational fear of global chaos. Man thinks that strict adherence to the rules will help to bring order to this senseless, dirty and disorganized world, make it a better, cleaner and more livable. If you do not, the world is rapidly degraded and returns to its original chaos.

And what is happening on the Internet? If you go to YouTube and look at the comments to at least one roller, you will see that the Internet is waiting for the imminent end, even if you are - quite reasonable, sane person. Old fashioned guardians of "world order", insists to write complete sentences with all the punctuation marks, anticipate the inevitable simplification of the language to the cuts. In such a situation it is easy to feel the desire to rush to protect the purity of the language with a raised visor.