Dentistry without pain - general anesthesia or local anesthesia? - Local anesthesia

June 3, 2010

  • Dentistry without pain - general anesthesia or local anesthesia?
  • Pain threshold
  • Methods
  • Local anesthesia

 Local anesthesia in dentistry

Local anesthesia in dentistry

The most commonly used in the treatment of dental local anesthetic. Wherein the anesthetic is administered in the gum or the inside of the cheek. Most often used for dental local anesthetic lidocaine, but there are many other analogs. Novocaine now almost never used - it was replaced by new products, with a more prolonged effect and not as likely to cause allergic reactions.

 Local anesthesia | dentistry without pain - general anesthesia or local anesthesia?

The liquid composition that is administered to a patient for analgesia but anesthetic may include:

  • Vasoconstrictors - drugs that constrict blood vessels. They provide extended anesthetic effect;
  • The chemicals that prevent the splitting of vasoconstrictors;
  • Sodium hydroxide - preparation, improves anesthetics;
  • Sodium chloride - accelerating the spread of drugs through the bloodstream.

There are two categories of local anesthesia. Blocking injection, which causes a loss of sensitivity sufficiently extensive region of the mouth, for example, one side of the mandible. Infiltration injection is used for pain relief in a small area around the place where the drug was introduced.

Before introducing the anesthetic, the dentist cleans part of your mouth with a piece of cotton wool. Sometimes also applied anesthetic gel. Then the doctor slowly introduces anesthetic. Most people, especially after using the gel, do not feel the prick, but feel tingling caused by movement of the anesthetic in the tissues.

The action of local anesthetics may last up to several hours, so for some time after the surgery, the patient can be difficult to eat and speak clearly. Drinking through a straw may also be difficult. Be very careful not to bite the part of the oral cavity, which acts an anesthetic - due to the loss of sensitivity bite can get pretty strong, but you will understand it only after the stop action of anesthetic.

 Local anesthesia | dentistry without pain - general anesthesia or local anesthesia?

Side effects

One of the possible side effects of local anesthesia - hematoma, which may be the result of injection. Sometimes the effect of the anesthetic spread beyond the target area. Signs of this can be sagging eyelid or corner of the mouth on the side where the anesthetic is injected. These side effects will disappear after pass effect of drugs. If as a result of the anesthetic you can not blink, the eyes have time to seal the plaster.

Some people vasoconstrictors cause an increase in heart rate - usually it lasts for a couple of minutes. Tell your doctor if you have ever experienced a side effect.

Finally, the needle can damage nerves, resulting in pain and numbness of the face, persist for several weeks or months.

Allergic reactions to drugs used for local anesthesia, are very rare. To avoid possible adverse reactions, inform your doctor about any medications you are taking at this time, as well as vitamins and herbs. Also, tell the doctor if you have ever had an allergic reaction Allergic reactions: how to understand why you tickle in the throat  Allergic reactions: how to understand why you tickle in the throat
   to drugs.

In general, the side effects of using local anesthesia are extremely rare and the majority of patients after two or three hours after the operation feel good.

Galina Romanenko

Scurvy: a rare but dangerous - symptoms of the disease

May 5, 2011

  • Scurvy: a rare but dangerous
  • Manifestation of disease

What is the scurvy and the reasons for its occurrence

Scurvy or scurvy - a vitamin deficiency C (ascorbic acid), which is manifested by bleeding, inflammation of the gums Gum disease - do not treat lightly  Gum disease - do not treat lightly
 , Changes in the structure of bones and ligaments. Often this background disrupted all organs and body systems. At the absolute cessation of receipt of ascorbic acid in the body, scurvy develops in about one to three months. If vitamin C is supplied into the body, but in insufficient quantity, scurvy symptoms develop within four to six months.

Despite the fact that scurvy is known for a very long time, its causes were not established until about a hundred years ago. But even Hippocrates treated scurvy fresh fruits and vegetables. Previously the disease was prevalent, but today only its registered separate cases.

The main reason for a lack of ascorbic acid - the lack of it in the diet during fasting or food products that do not contain it. Contribute to the emergence of symptoms of scurvy, and malabsorption of food in the intestines (for example, with the defeat of the intestinal wall). Accelerate the development of scurvy, a condition in which the increased need for vitamin C (pregnancy, neuro-psychological and physical stress, infectious diseases).

The appearance of scurvy contributes to the deficit and other vitamins (folic acid, vitamin P, flavonoids). Since ascorbic acid separates from metabolic processes disrupted the formation of connective tissue ground substance of cartilage and bone, and an adhesive substance that ensures the continuity of the inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium). Abnormalities in the endothelium lead to the fact that the blood is outside the blood vessels (coagulation but it is not broken).

The destruction of the connective tissue in the area of ​​dental system leads to loosening and loss of teeth, as well as characteristic changes in the gums. Also destroy the strong ties between the cartilage and bone, particularly at the point of attachment of the ribs to the sternum. Loss of ascorbic acid metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
   It helps suppression of the bone marrow and the formation of iron-deficiency anemia.

 The manifestation of the disease | Scurvy: a rare but dangerous

What are the symptoms of scurvy

Starts scurvy gradually beginning appears hypovitaminosis C, which does not have any special features. In patients with general weakness, fatigue, susceptibility to traumatic gum (solid food, a toothbrush) with their bleeding. In children, there is a decrease in appetite, pallor, they become restless. There are three degrees of scurvy, depending on the severity of clinical manifestations.

When scurvy first degree of the main feature of the disease is fatigue. Any physical activity leads to a marked fatigue and pain in the muscles. Especially characteristic pain in the legs Pain in the legs - from which they arise?  Pain in the legs - from which they arise?
   when walking. There is also swelling of the gums pale, and some swelling of the face. On the skin of the legs and trunk there are small hemorrhages, mainly around the hair follicles. Laboratory tests revealed slight anemia. While taking ascorbic acid, all these phenomena are.

Scurvy second degree - it's a serious condition, which is often accompanied by a loss of efficiency: patients hardly take care of themselves, lose weight, until complete exhaustion. Expressed inflammation and bleeding gums How to prevent bleeding gums: important rules  How to prevent bleeding gums: important rules
 , Gangrene of the gums. The skin is dark in places - spotted. There are numerous hemorrhages in the muscles and joints, which is why the patient is almost unable to walk. The concentration of ascorbic acid in the blood is reduced to five or six times. Blood found in the urine.

Scurvy is characterized by third-degree critical condition of patients requiring emergency medical care. There exhaustion, gangrenous inflammation of the gums, ulcerative lesions of the skin, massive bleeding in the skin, muscles, joints and internal organs, bleeding from the urinary tract. Often associated infection.

When scurvy any degree of temperature rise can be observed from small to very high numbers. Bleeding and inflammation can begin anywhere in the body that determines the signs of the disease. In the study of blood in it he found signs of iron deficiency anemia and inflammation (ESR acceleration, a large number of white blood cells). The urine is often found blood.

In humans undergoing scurvy second and third degree, often shaped extremity contractures and joint deformities in connection with the development of dense connective tissue at the site of hemorrhage.

 The manifestation of the disease | Scurvy: a rare but dangerous

Diagnosis and treatment of scurvy

The diagnosis of scurvy is placed on the basis of characteristic symptoms of the disease, reducing the concentration of ascorbic acid in the blood and X-ray examination of data, which are clearly visible changes in the skeletal system.

Treatment of scurvy is prescribing ascorbic acid in daily doses far exceeding the health needs of the people. In less severe disease, ascorbic acid is appointed inside, with heavy - intravenously. Work is also urgent symptomatic (depending on the emerging signs) therapy.

Nowadays, scurvy is rare, however, do not forget about it, especially during the cold season. For the prevention of this disease take vitamin and mineral complexes.

Galina Romanenko