- Anatomical Atlas - reveals the secrets of the human body
Man has always wanted to know how his body is arranged. Already in ancient Egypt, doctors began to describe some organs such as the brain and heart. And gradually, over many centuries of knowledge about the structure of the human body evolved into the most important medical science - anatomy. It helps to study anatomical atlas - a collection of images of all organs and systems.
The history of anatomical atlases
One of the first known Greek anatomists was Hippocrates. He is in his writings described the structure of some internal organs, eyes, bones, skull, ribs, vertebrae, muscles, joints, and most large blood vessels. Gerofil Erasistratus and were the first scholars of ancient Greece, who dissected human corpses and thus studied the structure of organs.
Galen, a distinguished physician of ancient Rome, because of the ban on autopsies of people studied anatomy on the corpses of sheep, dogs and pigs. However, he believed that the structure of the body of animals and humans no different, which is why in his works there had been a number of significant errors. Galen codified all the while anatomical details, and it works for thirteen centuries, served for the training of doctors.
In the Middle Ages because of the dominance of the Church the study of anatomy has almost stopped, but in the Renaissance, this science in its development has taken a big step forward. Leonardo da Vinci, a famous artist, philosopher and scientist was interested in plastic anatomy, and he made a lot of accurate drawings of the internal organs, muscles and bones of humans and animals. It was the first anatomically correct images of the human body, its organs and systems. But the work of this outstanding scientist were not widely known among his contemporaries.
Andreas Vesalius is considered the creator of systematic human anatomy. By studying the corpses of executed criminals, he described the organs and systems of the human body and have many anatomists errors in his work "On the structure of the human body." Seven volumes of this book is accompanied by excellent illustrations. Students Vesalius made many discoveries in the field of anatomy and corrected some mistakes that were made by scientists before.
One of the most famous anatomical atlases of XVII-XVIII centuries was G. Bidloo book "Anatomy of the human body in the 105 tables, images from nature." She left in 1685, and especially for Peter I has been translated into Russian. Later, in 1729, the book was translated again, but like the first time, existed only in manuscript form.
In Russia, the first anatomical atlas was drawn up in 1744 M.I.Sheinym, it was called "Dictionnaire, or an illustrated index of all parts of the human body." Author independently carried out the majority of illustrations for this edition. In 1757, MI Shein translated into Russian "Reducing anatomy" L. heister and thus became the founder of scientific medical terminology in Russia. Many of the names of the anatomical structures that are proposed to this scientist, currently in use. For example, the terms "blood vessels", "ileum", "ureter" were transferred to the MI Shein.
In XX century anatomical atlases have continued to improve. A great contribution to the development of anatomy made VP Vorobiev, a professor of anatomy in Kharkov Medical Institute and Lenin Prize winner. He was a wonderful teacher, has written several books and created an anatomical atlas, which has long been used for the training of doctors.
RD Sinelnikov, a disciple of VP Vorobyov, was for many years head of the department of anatomy Kharkov Medical Institute. The first edition of its "Atlas of Human Anatomy" was released in 1938-1942, respectively, and consisted of five volumes. Since this benefit is one of the most popular for students of higher medical schools. This anatomical atlas has been translated into English, Czech, Spanish, Bulgarian and Arabic. The last (seventh) edition of the book was published in 2007-2011 in Moscow.
What can be learned from anatomical atlases
Atlas helps medical students understand the structure and position of organs in the classroom or in the anatomical museum in the sectional hall. Also thanks to this tutorial at home training, you can easily remember and repeat the structure of anatomical specimens. The book consists of several core units:
- Osteology, and arthrology syndesmology, which describe the structure of bones and their connections to each other;
- Myology - a section that is dedicated to the muscles. In this case, it certainly is reflected not only their structures, but also their relation to bone formation;
- Splanhnologiya - the doctrine of internal organs. This section details the respiratory, digestive and urinary systems;
- The structure of endocrine glands;
- The structure of the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries of the large and small circulation);
- The structure of the lymphatic vessels and the spleen;
- Neurology - the structure of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system;
- Esthesiology - the doctrine of the structure of the senses.
Each section consists of numerous detailed illustrations are accompanied by descriptions of them. In addition to drawing benefits may include pictures of anatomical specimens and radiographic images that help to create a more complete picture of the structure of the human body. All anatomical structures are named in Latin, and the language in which the published atlas. Most sections are supplemented by information on the development and age of the features.
The study of the human body, all the organs and systems is impossible without the help of an anatomical atlas. The information that they contain, are necessary not only for the students of medical institutions, but also for many practitioners.