Deformation of the chest: congenital and acquired - What is the danger? - Types deformaii

May 13, 2010

  • Deformation of the chest: congenital and acquired - What is the danger?
  • Types deformaii

What is a chest deformity and its species

Deformation of the chest - a change of its shape. The deformations are congenital (dysplastic) and acquired.

Acquired deformations are much more common congenital and are due to previous diseases (rickets, scoliosis, bone tuberculosis Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed  Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed
 Chronic suppurative lung and pleura), burns and mechanical injuries.

To include congenital deformations caused by various abnormalities of muscles, spine, ribs, sternum and shoulder blades. The most severe strain ore cells arise due to incorrect development of skeletal chest.

Chest deformation strain also divide the front, side and rear walls that may have different manifestations depending on the type and amount of deformation. Their expressions may also vary widely from minor cosmetic defect to the gross violations of the form of the chest with the violation of the functional state of the respiratory, circulatory and metabolic processes.

 Types deformaii | chest deformity: congenital and acquired - What is the danger?

Deformation of the front of the chest wall

Such deformations often are congenital. It is noted hypoplasia of the chest muscles, sternum (bone front surface located in the middle of the chest, the ribs attached thereto), the absence or hypoplasia of the ribs and so on. By the deformation of the front wall of the chest are funnel-shaped, flat and keeled chest.

Flat chest is a consequence of its uneven development and reduce the anteroposterior dimension. Most often it is the result of a weak body, so this deformation is accompanied by only a cosmetic defect.

Funnel chest also a congenital abnormality. Very rarely it happens after diseases such as rickets Rickets - all about vitamins  Rickets - all about vitamins
 , Pulmonary tuberculosis, and so forth. If this deformation occurs shortening and thickening of the ligaments of the sternum with the diaphragm and the pericardium (the bag that contains the heart), as well as a decrease in central tendon of the diaphragm (the diaphragm - a muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal and is actively involved in breathing). Simultaneously proliferation front bottom ribs, costal cartilages mainly. As a result of all these changes as the child grows formed retraction of the sternum, resembling a funnel. At the same time there is a reduction of the distance between the sternum and the spine, sometimes up to their full contact. All this causes the displacement and compression of the chest. For these children, characterized by retraction of the sternum and the ribs during inspiration. Marked tendency to bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, irritability Irritability - you try to control my temper  Irritability - you try to control my temper
 , Stabbing pain in the heart. Often funnel deformation combined with other developmental defects, such as cleft lip and so on.

Keeled ("chicken") chest deformity occurs when excessive proliferation of costal cartilage, often V - VII ribs, which leads to a forward protrusion and retraction of the sternum at the edges of ribs - this gives a characteristic chest keel shape or "chicken breast." This significantly increases the anteroposterior size of the chest. Changes in posture in this type of strain is rare, but increases with the defect, and eventually becomes a major cosmetic defects. Changes in the internal organs under such strain is rare. Complaints mostly limited to fatigue, shortness of breath and heart rate during exercise. The heart has a dropping form (hanging heart).

 Types deformaii | chest deformity: congenital and acquired - What is the danger?

Deformation of the side and rear walls of the chest

These deformations are usually the result transferred diseases - rickets, tuberculosis of the spine Tuberculosis of the spine - especially manifestations  Tuberculosis of the spine - especially manifestations
 , Scoliosis, and so on. In this case, as a result of the primary damage and changes in the shape of the vertebrae and the subsequent curvature of the spine occurs concomitant change ribs. Shaped protrusion side edges of the rib hump, barrel chest and so on. Along with pronounced cosmetic defect formation of the rib hump may result in functional disorders of the cardiovascular system and respiratory system.

 Types deformaii | chest deformity: congenital and acquired - What is the danger?

Treatment of deformities of the chest

Treatment should be individualized, taking into account both types of deformation, its severity, and the functional state of the circulatory and respiratory system.

If malformations of the anterior muscles of the chest Treatment usually aims to eliminate cosmetic defects. It does not require special treatment as most of the deformation caused by a defect in the flat edges of the chest. In these cases shows massage, medical gymnastics, swimming, tennis and so on.

The treatment of the funnel chest - only operative: performed partial resection of the deformed ribs and sternum, cut short grudinodiafragmalnoy ligament.

Keeled breast subject surgical treatment only if the affected organs and not before the age of five.

The most difficult to treat chest deformation due to curvature of the spine - such deformation is much easier to prevent than to treat.

Fracture brush - Keep your hands - the brush structure

July 11, 2010

  • Fracture brush - Keep hands
  • The structure of the brush

The structure of the brush

The brush is composed of 27 bones and is divided into the carpal, metacarpal departments and fingers. In the area of ​​the wrist are arranged in two rows of eight small bones. Closer to the bones of the forearm is a first (proximal) number, it includes (from the thumb): scaphoid, semilunar, triangular and pisiform bones. In the second (distal) includes a series of polygonal, trapezoid, capitate and hamate bone. Distal number connected to the proximal joint using srednezapyastnogo form.

Metacarpal Department consists of a tubular 5 metacarpal bones, they all have a base, body and head. Bones fingers consist of three phalanges (except I toe, it has two phalanges).

Radius and proximal row of carpal bones form the wrist joint. Srednezapyastny wrist and joints strengthened by numerous ligaments that connect the bones of the wrist between themselves and with the metacarpal bones. Carpometacarpal joints of the hand the bones of the distal row of carpal bones and metacarpal bones. All the bones are almost motionless and firmly linked together, forming a solid foundation brush. Metacarpophalangeal joint of the hand are mobile, they are constituted by metacarpal bones and phalanges. Interphalangeal joints of the hand is also quite agile, they can only flexion and extension.

The muscles in the hand are located only in the palm of your hand. Slip of the tendons and muscles, as well as a reduction in the friction promote tendon sheath, representing channels.

 The structure of the brush | brush fracture - Keep hands

Why can occur broken hand bones

This is a very frequent fractures that can occur in the fall of man (remember that in the fall we reflexively put out in front of the hand and fall on the palm), the fall of gravity on the hand or a blow to the hand. The most common fractures of the proximal row of the wrist, a little less - metacarpal fractures and fractures of fingers. A feature of fractures of the wrist is that often they are treated as the stretching of muscles and tendons, and this negatively affects the consequences of such injuries.

 The structure of the brush | brush fracture - Keep hands

Fractures of the wrist bones

When fractures of the wrist often damaged bone of the proximal row. The most common fracture of the wrist is fractured navicular bone, which may result from a direct blow (including hitting his fist on the solid surface) or falling straightened brush. Following such a trauma navicular usually broken into two halves, which may move relative to each other. According to distinguish the fracture line transverse, longitudinal, oblique and comminuted fractures of the wrist. Sometimes this is combined with a fracture dislocation Dislocation - Prevention and Treatment  Dislocation - Prevention and Treatment
   brushes (perelomovyvih).

An indication of scaphoid fracture is pain in the area of ​​the fracture (usually this place is next to the thumb), change the brush shape, movement disorder in the brush, swelling Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause  Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
   surrounding soft tissues. There is a weakness in the hand gripping objects, the inability to complete the compression hand into a fist. When relying on the table elevation thumb appears soreness.

If you suspect a fracture of the hand held x-ray, but as the navicular bone is small in size, the fracture on the radiograph can often be detected only with a magnifying glass.

Fresh fractures without displacement of bone fragments usually treated casting of a period of 3-12 weeks (duration of treatment depends on the site of bone fracture). Plaster is applied from the base of the fingers to the elbow joint. Treatment is carried out under the rentgenkontrolem if bone fusion has occurred, then it is an indication for surgery. In such cases, one or removed from the bone fragments, or fragments impose special clamps.

 The structure of the brush | brush fracture - Keep hands

Fractures of the metacarpal bones of the hand

Fractures of the metacarpals are also fairly common. The most important is I metacarpal bone fracture. There are two types of fractures: intra-articular and extra-articular.

When intraarticular fractures I metacarpal bone (Bennett fracture) at the fracture site is a triangular fragment, and the metacarpal bone with the finger moves with the formation of dislocation.

The outer region of the injured joint swelling, smoothed contours of her, I is a finger and a few bent, there is a characteristic deformation due to displacement of bone fragments, sharp pain on palpation of the joint and the load is not the tip of the I toe.

Treatment of Bennett's fracture is a careful combination (repositioning) of bone fragments in the first hours after the injury, in extreme cases - in the first 2-3 days, that is, until a persistent muscle spasm (contraction). After that applied plaster cast for 4-6 weeks. In some cases, the bone fragments after a combination of fixed spokes drawn through the metacarpal bone.

 The structure of the brush | brush fracture - Keep hands

First aid in cases of suspected wrist fracture

If you suspect a fracture or dislocation of the bones of the hand to the injury site should be accompanied by cold and bandage the hand to a wide bus so that the bus started from the middle of the forearm, and ends at the end of the fingers. Before applying the damaged tire in the palm of the hand should put some small object that fingers were slightly bent. After that, the victim must be taken to the emergency room.

Galina Romanenko

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  • fractures