- Fracture brush - Keep hands
- The structure of the brush
The structure of the brush
The brush is composed of 27 bones and is divided into the carpal, metacarpal departments and fingers. In the area of the wrist are arranged in two rows of eight small bones. Closer to the bones of the forearm is a first (proximal) number, it includes (from the thumb): scaphoid, semilunar, triangular and pisiform bones. In the second (distal) includes a series of polygonal, trapezoid, capitate and hamate bone. Distal number connected to the proximal joint using srednezapyastnogo form.
Metacarpal Department consists of a tubular 5 metacarpal bones, they all have a base, body and head. Bones fingers consist of three phalanges (except I toe, it has two phalanges).
Radius and proximal row of carpal bones form the wrist joint. Srednezapyastny wrist and joints strengthened by numerous ligaments that connect the bones of the wrist between themselves and with the metacarpal bones. Carpometacarpal joints of the hand the bones of the distal row of carpal bones and metacarpal bones. All the bones are almost motionless and firmly linked together, forming a solid foundation brush. Metacarpophalangeal joint of the hand are mobile, they are constituted by metacarpal bones and phalanges. Interphalangeal joints of the hand is also quite agile, they can only flexion and extension.
The muscles in the hand are located only in the palm of your hand. Slip of the tendons and muscles, as well as a reduction in the friction promote tendon sheath, representing channels.
Why can occur broken hand bones
This is a very frequent fractures that can occur in the fall of man (remember that in the fall we reflexively put out in front of the hand and fall on the palm), the fall of gravity on the hand or a blow to the hand. The most common fractures of the proximal row of the wrist, a little less - metacarpal fractures and fractures of fingers. A feature of fractures of the wrist is that often they are treated as the stretching of muscles and tendons, and this negatively affects the consequences of such injuries.
Fractures of the wrist bones
When fractures of the wrist often damaged bone of the proximal row. The most common fracture of the wrist is fractured navicular bone, which may result from a direct blow (including hitting his fist on the solid surface) or falling straightened brush. Following such a trauma navicular usually broken into two halves, which may move relative to each other. According to distinguish the fracture line transverse, longitudinal, oblique and comminuted fractures of the wrist. Sometimes this is combined with a fracture dislocation
Dislocation - Prevention and Treatment
An indication of scaphoid fracture is pain in the area of the fracture (usually this place is next to the thumb), change the brush shape, movement disorder in the brush, swelling
Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
surrounding soft tissues. There is a weakness in the hand gripping objects, the inability to complete the compression hand into a fist. When relying on the table elevation thumb appears soreness.
If you suspect a fracture of the hand held x-ray, but as the navicular bone is small in size, the fracture on the radiograph can often be detected only with a magnifying glass.
Fresh fractures without displacement of bone fragments usually treated casting of a period of 3-12 weeks (duration of treatment depends on the site of bone fracture). Plaster is applied from the base of the fingers to the elbow joint. Treatment is carried out under the rentgenkontrolem if bone fusion has occurred, then it is an indication for surgery. In such cases, one or removed from the bone fragments, or fragments impose special clamps.
Fractures of the metacarpal bones of the hand
Fractures of the metacarpals are also fairly common. The most important is I metacarpal bone fracture. There are two types of fractures: intra-articular and extra-articular.
When intraarticular fractures I metacarpal bone (Bennett fracture) at the fracture site is a triangular fragment, and the metacarpal bone with the finger moves with the formation of dislocation.
The outer region of the injured joint swelling, smoothed contours of her, I is a finger and a few bent, there is a characteristic deformation due to displacement of bone fragments, sharp pain on palpation of the joint and the load is not the tip of the I toe.
Treatment of Bennett's fracture is a careful combination (repositioning) of bone fragments in the first hours after the injury, in extreme cases - in the first 2-3 days, that is, until a persistent muscle spasm (contraction). After that applied plaster cast for 4-6 weeks. In some cases, the bone fragments after a combination of fixed spokes drawn through the metacarpal bone.
First aid in cases of suspected wrist fracture
If you suspect a fracture or dislocation of the bones of the hand to the injury site should be accompanied by cold and bandage the hand to a wide bus so that the bus started from the middle of the forearm, and ends at the end of the fingers. Before applying the damaged tire in the palm of the hand should put some small object that fingers were slightly bent. After that, the victim must be taken to the emergency room.