Analysis of syphilis, which is held during the professional examinations, identifies individuals with suspected syphilis. But for further diagnosis is required to conduct a number of tests, because the only analysis that could confirm or remove the diagnosis of syphilis, does not exist.
Analysis of syphilis - the types of tests
Blood tests for syphilis can be conducted using serological tests that detect antibodies to syphilis. All serological tests are divided into non-treponemal and treponemal.
For non-treponemal tests are Wasserman (RW) and its modern and more accurate interpretation of the quality - RPR and VDRL and microprecipitation reaction, which is used for the rapid diagnosis of syphilis
Diagnosis of syphilis - the necessary amount of diagnostic measures
. Non-treponemal tests syphilis in most cases are positive. But their disadvantage is a false positive result for syphilis in some other diseases and conditions.
Treponemal tests are specific, meaning they only reveal antibodies to syphilis. But they have a serious disadvantage - the antibodies may remain in the patient's blood and after treatment for the rest of lives. By treponemal tests include ELISA, TPHA, FTA and RIBT.
Blood tests for syphilis rapid method
Blood tests for syphilis carried out by different methods. When mass screening of the population (for example, during prophylactic examinations) used rapid method (EM) or microreaction syphilis, rapid syphilis testing. For his use of cardiolipin antigen, one drop of which is mixed with 2-3 drops of the serum of a human. Reaction occurs microprecipitation (RMP), the result of which is assessed by the amount of precipitation and the amount of cereal. The degree of reaction indicate ins: 4 +, 3 + and so on.
EM - it is a sensitive method, which allows you to identify the bulk of patients with early-stage syphilis.
False positive test for syphilis when EM is possible for rheumatism
Rheumatic fever - are possible complications of heart
, Rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue, tuberculosis, mononucleosis, malaria, the elderly, and so on, so this method is the selection, test. Express - analysis for syphilis is a cause for positive blood tests for syphilis by other methods.
Interpretation of tests for syphilis
Wasserman (RW) in syphilis becomes positive 5-8 weeks after infection, some patients later. Titer it grows upon receipt of syphilis in the blood and reaches a maximum at the secondary fresh syphilis. Then, the antibody titer is gradually decreased and late forms of syphilis RW is often negative. The rapid decline in antibody titers during treatment demonstrates its effectiveness. Evaluation of the RW: strongly positive - 4 + positive - 3 + weak positive (dubious analysis for syphilis) - 2 + and 1 + negative -. RW disadvantage is its lack of specificity - false positive reaction for syphilis
Syphilis - punishment of Venus
patients may be connective tissue (systemic scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and so on), some infections (mononucleosis, leprosy, malaria, measles
Measles in children - may cause serious complications
et al.), malignant neoplasms, liver diseases, extensive myocardial infarction, the abuse of alcohol and drugs, as well as some healthy people. Therefore, a positive result for syphilis by RW is a cause for further analysis for syphilis using treponemal tests.
The method of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) refers to treponemnym. Explanation of syphilis testing by ELISA identifies antibodies to syphilis, to determine their titer and belonging to a particular class of immunoglobulins. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) indicates the presence of active syphilis in the early stages, while the presence of IgG may indicate how the presence of syphilis, and that the patient is ill with syphilis.
Since there is no single analysis to establish the diagnosis of syphilis, for its refinement conducted complex investigations in the form of one of two non-treponemal and treponemal tests.
Positive reaction for syphilis all three test allows diagnosis of syphilis - the most accurate analysis of syphilis. Comprehensive survey also allows you to ignore the occasional false positive syphilis testing.
How to check for syphilis
How to identify syphilis? It is enough to see a doctor, or if there is suspicion of a venereal disease, donate blood for syphilis - today it can be done without problems, it would wish.
Where to get tested for syphilis? This can be done free of charge by the policy in the district hospital anonymously or for a fee - in any hospital which has at its disposal a laboratory, where the blood is examined for syphilis, including STI clinics.
Preparing for syphilis testing is very important. To test for syphilis was conducted properly, blood is taken from a study of the cubital vein or on an empty stomach, not earlier than four hours after a meal in the amount of 7 ml. In no case can not be combined test for syphilis with alcohol.
Screening for syphilis may also include a microscopic examination of the discharge to pale treponemu chancre or punctate lymph nodes, as well as a complete blood count - in syphilis it is possible to see moderate leukocytosis - increased content of leukocytes, characteristic of infectious diseases.