Mycoplasma and ureaplasma - organisms of the same family

December 7, 2012

 mycoplasma ureaplasma
 Mycoplasma and ureaplasma are close relatives. Until now, it can not decide the question, whether they are representatives of opportunistic or pathogenic organisms. It depends on whether or not to treat the person, if he found these organisms. But in most cases, urologists and gynecologists do have an idea of ​​whom to treat and whom not.

 Mycoplasma and ureaplasma - organisms of the same family

Mycoplasma and ureaplasma - what is it?

Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma microorganisms are small (less than the size of bacteria and more viruses) that belong to the class Mollicutes, Micoplasmataceae family. Most of them live on the surface of the urogenital tract of men and women and can cause infectious-inflammatory processes, under certain conditions, for example, with a decrease in immunity. That is, these microorganisms are pathogenic microflora.

Only one member of this family (Mycoplasma genitalium) is recognized by most researchers as a pathogen, as falling on the mucous membranes of the urinary tract, it almost always causes an infectious-inflammatory process.

A feature of mycoplasmas and ureaplasma is that at the same time they are very often detected and other microflora, usually pathogens that cause genital infection - trichomonas, chlamydia, gonorrhea and so on. That is what makes it difficult to identify the manifestations of mycoplasma and ureaplasma.

 Mycoplasma and ureaplasma - organisms of the same family

How does mikoplapzmoz and ureaplasmosis

Upon detection assays ureaplasma or mycoplasma doctor first tries to determine whether it is a carriage without the disease, or a person has any symptoms of infectious-inflammatory process - or mycoplasma ureaplasmosis.

In women, these diseases occur very often hidden, but it can spread to the internal genital organs, which can later be an obstacle to the conception, childbearing and birth process. Therefore, doctors try to identify these hidden processes and treat them.

But sometimes infectious-inflammatory processes, and have clear signs. Most of these diseases are caused by Mycoplasma genitalium. Women have a slight itching in the genital area, burning during urination, small mucus Mucus - what is the norm for a healthy woman  Mucus - what is the norm for a healthy woman
 Sometimes - pain in the abdomen.

In men, symptoms and mycoplasma ureaplasmosis also often are minimal: a slight burning sensation when urinating, an easy genital itching and minor transparent allocation Transparent allocation when they are normal?  Transparent allocation when they are normal?
   in the mornings. But mkoplazm feature is that they are "glued" to the sperm and reduce their activity, which can lead to infertility.

 Mycoplasma and ureaplasma - organisms of the same family

To treat or not to treat the detected mycoplasma and ureaplasma?

In most cases, the appearance on the surface of the genital tract of men and women ureaplasma and mycoplasma are not accompanied by the development of infectious-inflammatory process. Whether it is necessary in this case to treat human? Most obstetricians and gynecologists and urologists agree that the treatment in this case it is not necessary to assign.

Exceptions are not as frequent ear, except when opportunistic mycoplasma and ureaplasma nothing could not be detected, and infectious and inflammatory process is. In this case, a discharge seeding on nutrient medium and calculates the number of microorganisms in 1 mL extractions. If they contain more than 10,000 CFU in 1 ml (cfu - colony forming unit), then the treatment.

Treatment is prescribed in the case where the opportunistic form of mycoplasmas and ureaplasma detected with other agents of sexually transmitted infections - chlamydia Chlamydia: insidious and widespread disease  Chlamydia: insidious and widespread disease
 , Gonococci, trichomonas, and so on.

Finally, the treatment is given is always Mycoplasma genitalium detection - it is believed that even if the external manifestations of infectious-inflammatory process have been identified, it takes place in a hidden form. Mycoplasma genitalium is often the "culprit" of acute and chronic inflammatory processes in the uterus and its appendages (fallopian tubes and ovaries), which lead to infertility.

Dangerous all manifestations of mycoplasma and ureaplasma and men - they can lead to infertility, so thoroughly identified and being treated.

Thus, the question of whether to treat and mycoplasmosis ureaplasmosis Ureaplasmosis - inflammation of the urogenital system  Ureaplasmosis - inflammation of the urogenital system
   the doctor should decide. He decides on the basis of this survey and a thorough examination of the patient. The question is, treated or not treated, it depends on many factors: the type of the identified pathogen, presence or absence of symptoms of the disease, the general condition of the patient (the upcoming surgery, treatment for other diseases, the presence of pregnancy, and so on).

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • mycoplasmosis,
  • ureaplasmosis

Analysis of syphilis - the identification of dangerous infection

February 1, 2014

 Analysis of syphilis
 Analysis of syphilis, which is held during the professional examinations, identifies individuals with suspected syphilis. But for further diagnosis is required to conduct a number of tests, because the only analysis that could confirm or remove the diagnosis of syphilis, does not exist.


Analysis of syphilis - the types of tests

Blood tests for syphilis can be conducted using serological tests that detect antibodies to syphilis. All serological tests are divided into non-treponemal and treponemal.

For non-treponemal tests are Wasserman (RW) and its modern and more accurate interpretation of the quality - RPR and VDRL and microprecipitation reaction, which is used for the rapid diagnosis of syphilis Diagnosis of syphilis - the necessary amount of diagnostic measures  Diagnosis of syphilis - the necessary amount of diagnostic measures
 . Non-treponemal tests syphilis in most cases are positive. But their disadvantage is a false positive result for syphilis in some other diseases and conditions.

Treponemal tests are specific, meaning they only reveal antibodies to syphilis. But they have a serious disadvantage - the antibodies may remain in the patient's blood and after treatment for the rest of lives. By treponemal tests include ELISA, TPHA, FTA and RIBT.


Blood tests for syphilis rapid method

Blood tests for syphilis carried out by different methods. When mass screening of the population (for example, during prophylactic examinations) used rapid method (EM) or microreaction syphilis, rapid syphilis testing. For his use of cardiolipin antigen, one drop of which is mixed with 2-3 drops of the serum of a human. Reaction occurs microprecipitation (RMP), the result of which is assessed by the amount of precipitation and the amount of cereal. The degree of reaction indicate ins: 4 +, 3 + and so on.

EM - it is a sensitive method, which allows you to identify the bulk of patients with early-stage syphilis.

False positive test for syphilis when EM is possible for rheumatism Rheumatic fever - are possible complications of heart  Rheumatic fever - are possible complications of heart
 , Rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue, tuberculosis, mononucleosis, malaria, the elderly, and so on, so this method is the selection, test. Express - analysis for syphilis is a cause for positive blood tests for syphilis by other methods.


Interpretation of tests for syphilis

Wasserman (RW) in syphilis becomes positive 5-8 weeks after infection, some patients later. Titer it grows upon receipt of syphilis in the blood and reaches a maximum at the secondary fresh syphilis. Then, the antibody titer is gradually decreased and late forms of syphilis RW is often negative. The rapid decline in antibody titers during treatment demonstrates its effectiveness. Evaluation of the RW: strongly positive - 4 + positive - 3 + weak positive (dubious analysis for syphilis) - 2 + and 1 + negative -. RW disadvantage is its lack of specificity - false positive reaction for syphilis Syphilis - punishment of Venus  Syphilis - punishment of Venus
   patients may be connective tissue (systemic scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and so on), some infections (mononucleosis, leprosy, malaria, measles Measles in children - may cause serious complications  Measles in children - may cause serious complications
   et al.), malignant neoplasms, liver diseases, extensive myocardial infarction, the abuse of alcohol and drugs, as well as some healthy people. Therefore, a positive result for syphilis by RW is a cause for further analysis for syphilis using treponemal tests.

The method of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) refers to treponemnym. Explanation of syphilis testing by ELISA identifies antibodies to syphilis, to determine their titer and belonging to a particular class of immunoglobulins. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) indicates the presence of active syphilis in the early stages, while the presence of IgG may indicate how the presence of syphilis, and that the patient is ill with syphilis.

Since there is no single analysis to establish the diagnosis of syphilis, for its refinement conducted complex investigations in the form of one of two non-treponemal and treponemal tests.

Positive reaction for syphilis all three test allows diagnosis of syphilis - the most accurate analysis of syphilis. Comprehensive survey also allows you to ignore the occasional false positive syphilis testing.


How to check for syphilis

How to identify syphilis? It is enough to see a doctor, or if there is suspicion of a venereal disease, donate blood for syphilis - today it can be done without problems, it would wish.

Where to get tested for syphilis? This can be done free of charge by the policy in the district hospital anonymously or for a fee - in any hospital which has at its disposal a laboratory, where the blood is examined for syphilis, including STI clinics.

Preparing for syphilis testing is very important. To test for syphilis was conducted properly, blood is taken from a study of the cubital vein or on an empty stomach, not earlier than four hours after a meal in the amount of 7 ml. In no case can not be combined test for syphilis with alcohol.

Screening for syphilis may also include a microscopic examination of the discharge to pale treponemu chancre or punctate lymph nodes, as well as a complete blood count - in syphilis it is possible to see moderate leukocytosis - increased content of leukocytes, characteristic of infectious diseases.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • syphilis