Mycoplasma and ureaplasma
This insidious ureaplasma - often too late
- A small bacterium belonging to the family Mycoplasmataceae, belonging to the classes Mycoplasmatales. Family Mycoplasmataceae divided into two kinds - mycoplasma and ureaplasma. That is, both of these types of bacteria are mycoplasmas.
Types of mycoplasmas which cause disease in humans
Today, the main species of mycoplasmas which cause disease in humans, are:
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae - causes acute respiratory illness and pneumonia;
- Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum - cause of infectious-inflammatory diseases of the urinary organs; while Mycoplasma genitalium is considered a pathogen, and the remaining two - opportunistic, however, that Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum are often "culprits" destruction of the joints, the heart, brain and other serious complications in patients with impaired immunity.
What determines the sensitivity of mycoplasmas to certain types of antibiotics
Mycoplasmas differ from other bacteria not only in size (which is significantly less bacteria), but also by their lack of a full cell membrane. That is why they are introduced without problems in the epithelial cells and show no sensitivity to antibiotics destroying the cell membrane of pathogens, such as penicillins and cephalosporins.
All species of mycoplasmas are sensitive to drugs that affect the synthesis of proteins, including proteins that are part of the genome (the genetic material is not issued in the form of a cell nucleus) mycoplasma. These medicines include antibiotics tetracycline, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides some.
The different types of mycoplasma exhibit different sensitivity to certain drugs listed groups. What matters is the overall condition of the patient and mycoplasmosis
Mycoplasmosis - infection does not always equal disease
- At the same time it manifests the individual characteristics of the sensitivity of mycoplasmas to certain antibiotics. An increasing number of strains of mycoplasma, insensitive to different groups of antibiotics. In this regard, today is considered necessary before the appointment of antibacterial treatment to conduct laboratory examination of sensitivity of isolated strains of mycoplasma to antibiotics tetracycline and macrolides, and fluoroquinolones.
Of this group of drugs for the treatment of mycoplasma most often used doksitsillin. It has fewer side effects than tetracyclines
Tetracycline - a natural broad-spectrum antibiotic
and, unlike the latter, it does not linger in the body. The most efficient technology doxycycline cooked Soljutab (yunodoks soljutab - Dutch pharmaceutical company Astellas), the technology is that the active substance is placed in the small balls (microspheres) with a filler, resistant to acids. The microspheres do not dissolve in the acidic gastric environment and dissolves only in the alkaline environment of the intestine.
Yunodoks soljutab particularly effective in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory processes of urogenital organs, caused by mycoplasma and chlamydia at the same time
Chlamydia: insidious and widespread disease
(this combination is very frequent).
But this drug can not be used to treat young children and pregnant women.
To macrolide antibiotics, used to treat mycoplasma include azithromycin, josamycin, midecamycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin.
The most effective drug is today considered azithromycin (sumamed) belonging to the second generation of macrolides. It is resistant to the acidic environment of the stomach, it can penetrate into the cells and destroy mycoplasma. However, azithromycin is contraindicated in pregnancy.
Effective against mycoplasma and first-generation macrolides, e.g., josamycin (vilprafen), which is also manufactured by technology Soljutab not degraded in the gut and is well tolerated. This drug may be assigned to pregnant women.
Other types of antibacterial drugs used to treat mycoplasma
All kinds of mycoplasmas are sensitive to drugs antibioterialnym fluoroquinolones, especially ofloxacin (pharmacies you can also buy under the names dzheofloks, zanotsin, tarivid and others). This drug helps to complete destruction of mycoplasmas, but does not apply during pregnancy.
Antibiotics minoglikozidov (e.g. gentamycin) is much less effective in the treatment of mycoplasmosis, however, and they are sometimes used to treat these diseases.
Selection of antimicrobials for the treatment of mycoplasma today carried out only on the basis of laboratory tests to identify the sensitivity of pathogens to these drugs.