Rotavirus: favorable prognosis

June 22, 2013

  • Rotavirus: favorable prognosis
  • Signs
  • Symptoms
  • incubation period
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Gestation
  • Lactation
  • Prevention
  • Vaccine

 rotavirus infection
 An infectious disease caused by rotaviruses are called rotavirus. In this disease there is called "intestinal flu" due to the characteristic clinical picture. Rotavirus infection has a variety of ways, and the main mechanism of infection is considered to be nutritional way.

Rotavirus - a virus that infects the intestines, the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. According to statistics, from rotavirus infection die each year about six hundred thousand children worldwide. The name "Rotavirus" is derived from the Latin word rota - «Wheel»: under the electron microscope, the virus is similar to the wheel.

Almost all children under three years of age suffer from rotavirus infection. There may be, and repeated infections with different origin of the virus, and the majority of children in the first years of life, there are many cases of rotavirus infection. After multiple infections with different origin of the virus in children immune to rotavirus. At highest risk are children between six months to two years - that they provoke severe rotavirus disease. Adults can also become infected with rotavirus, but they provoked the disease is usually less serious.

The largest number of cases of rotavirus infection usually occurs in the winter and spring months - from November to May. However, the outbreak of rotavirus infection can occur at any time of year.

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis

How is the development of the disease

The pathogen is a member of the genus of RNA viruses. Its composition is fragmented double-stranded RNA genome consists of 11 fragments. Rotavirus got its name because of the similarity in shape to the wheel. Infection by this group of viruses takes place in various ways. In some cases, you can find the name of the infections "disease of dirty hands", as alimentary transmission is the most common pathogen. The source of infection may become dirty, infected food, but primarily dairy products. The most susceptible children, particularly in the age of one year. This is due to the fact that children begin to attend a variety of pre-schools, nurseries, where the risk of infection is increased many times over.

Also, a child not yet fully developed immune system The immune system - how it works?  The immune system - how it works?
 So the child's body is most vulnerable to pathogenic action of viruses.

The content of the secretory immunoglobulin A is higher in adult human gastric juice has a higher acidity in comparison with children. These arrangements provide the kind of protection from the effects of adult rotavirus. It is proved that almost all the world's children under five suffered rotavirus. With each disease, the body produces immunity Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
 So the clinical picture will not differ acute symptoms. May occur isolated cases of infections and outbreaks, which are most typical for children's groups.

This type of viral infection has cyclical flow, so allocate some periods in the course of the disease:

  • The incubation period of up to five days
  • acute period. It continues this period of three to seven days, which is determined by the severity of the disease
  • during recovery or convalescence

For infection characterized by acute onset .  The virus enters the body and multiplies in epithelial cells of the intestine, which leads to their death .  Most often affects the small intestine, the duodenum .  After the incubation period, clinical disease develops .  Acute onset of developmental disorders vomiting and stool with fever are the hallmarks of rotavirus .  Join the symptoms of colds (runny nose, pain on swallowing, redness of the throat) against intestinal disorders as well as the transfer of the pathogen can occur through airborne droplets when sneezing .  It notes the existence of a clear seasonal prevalence, the highest number of cases observed in the cold season (autumn, winter) .  The most common is the development of outbreaks during the flu season, so rotavirus infection is also called "intestinal flu" .

In some cases, signs of infection are similar to the clinical symptoms of hepatitis, which is manifested by characteristic changes in feces and urine. Cal becomes white or discolored, urine may contain an admixture of blood, concentrated, which gives it a darker color. Changes chairs have their own characteristics - during the first days of the stool becomes gray-yellow and glinoobraznym consistency. During periods of acute illness stool frequency may be up to 15 times per day. The disease affects the general health of the patient. There is a general lack of energy, weakness and malaise, lack or loss of appetite. The child has signs of infection may be morning sickness, vomiting that is not associated with food intake and most often on an empty stomach. The child becomes lethargic, moody, his body temperature rises up to high numbers (up to 39 about FROM). The temperature is held for a few days and is not reduced by the use of conventional antipyretics. In the future, with the development of infection appears diarrhea, can be confusing pain in the abdomen. If the child is too small and not able to explain that he was concerned, it should pay attention to tearfulness, moodiness, irritability Irritability - you try to control my temper  Irritability - you try to control my temper
   and the emergence of rumbling in the abdomen. The child does not eat well, lose weight, it appears not only vomiting after eating and after drinking a small amount of liquid.

Due to the characteristics of adult disease in adults may be asymptomatic. In some cases, it noted the presence of only unexpressed frustration of a chair.

In such a case, the person is unaware that they are infected, and is a potential source of infection for those people who surround him. After completion of the incubation period of the disease symptoms appear in people who were in contact with the sick person. To prevent development of the disease is possible only if there is a good immune defense, which is a powerful barrier to the spread of viruses. Often, adults believe that evolved temporary indigestion due to the violation of the diet, with the use of a substandard product, so do not pay enough attention to the complaint. In this regard, in order to prevent the development of infections in the people around them and to prevent the development of complications, it is recommended when a disorder of the chair in any situation, seek medical advice.

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis

What are the symptoms?

The time period from infection to the first symptoms of rotavirus infection (called the incubation period of the disease) - about two days. The main symptoms of rotavirus - a high temperature (fever), vomiting, diarrhea, and in some cases - abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 . Children infected with rotavirus, watery stools may occur several times per day. Usually the symptoms of rotavirus infection are observed for three to nine days. After the first case rotavirus body can not develop immunity against rotavirus completely but recurrent infection usually transported more easily.

One of the characteristic effects of rotavirus - dehydration in infants and young children. In very rare cases, severe dehydration can lead to death, so it is important to recognize and treat complications caused by rotavirus infection at an early stage of the disease. In addition to the characteristic symptoms of the rotavirus infection it is very important to recognize the symptoms of dehydration that accompanies the disease.

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis

The main symptoms of dehydration caused by rotavirus infection:

  • Lethargy, confusion, drowsiness,
  • Dry, cold skin
  • Dry mouth
  • The lack of tears when crying
  • Sunken eyes
  • Extreme thirst

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis


Rotavirus is highly contagious. The main mode of transmission of rotavirus - the transfer of rotavirus in the stool in the mouth of another child, the so-called fecal-oral transmission mechanism infektsii.Deti can be infected with rotavirus, forgetting to wash their hands before eating or after going to the restroom. Touching the surface of infected by rotavirus, and then touching the mouth could also lead to infection.

Furthermore, in some cases the presence of rotavirus observed in respiratory secretions and other fluids in the body. Since rotavirus is stable and does not lose the contagious properties, getting into the environment, can be infected with rotavirus by ingestion of contaminated water or food, as well as by direct contact with contaminated surfaces. Dry and hard surfaces rotavirus may persist for several days, and is active in the human hand for several hours.

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis


Diagnosis of rotavirus by means of detection of rotavirus in stool specimens. In the future, to determine the specific virus strain used diagnostic methods: immunnofermentny analysis or polymerase chain reaction. However, in most cases, such assays are not necessary.

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis

How to treat?

Specific treatment of rotavirus infection does not exist.

In normal operation of the immune system of human rotavirus infection of the intestine (called gastroenteritis) - a disease that lasts a few days and runs independently. In the treatment of rotavirus infection it is recommended to increase the amount of fluids you drink to prevent dehydration - one of the most common effects of rotavirus infection. According to statistics, one out of every forty cases of rotavirus infection of the intestine in children requiring hospitalization for vnutrevenno fluid administration.

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis


Rotavirus - a disease that passes without treatment. Symptoms usually disappear in three to nine days after infection with rotavirus. In very rare cases, dehydration, major complication of rotavirus infection is fatal. Timely diagnosis of rotavirus infection and observance of the basic rules of the treatment of the disease (in particular, the increase in consumed liquid) can prevent the occurrence of complications.

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis

How to prevent?

Since rotavirus is very common, to prevent rotavirus infection is very difficult - especially in young children.

The most effective way to prevent rotavirus infection is considered timely vaccination.

The first vaccine developed for the prevention of rotavirus infection and containing a weakened live virus has been used since 1998 for the prevention of rotavirus in children under the age of two months. The vaccine, called RotaShield, caused quite serious side effects - such as increased risk of intussustseptsii (integration of foreign substance in the tissue of the intestine). Because of this, today, this vaccine is no longer used for the prevention of rotavirus infection.

In 2006, for the prevention of rotavirus has been developed another live vaccine - RotaTeq, recommended for the prevention of infection in children. Studies have shown that vaccination prevents disease timely seventy four percent of cases. There are three different doses of RotaTeq for children of different ages.

 Rotavirus: favorable prognosis

Rotavirus: key facts

  • Rotavirus infection - the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and children.
  • Most children are infected with rotavirus in the first three years of life.
  • There are several different rotavirus strains, each of which may cause rotavirus.
  • Rotavirus causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea.
  • Rotavirus is highly contagious.
  • Symptoms of rotavirus infection usually disappear within three to nine days.
  • For the prevention of rotavirus vaccine is used.