- Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease: What You Need to Know
- Postpartum thyroiditis
For the production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland is responsible thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). His pituitary gland produces. Thyroid disease - a disorder in which the thyroid gland produces more or less of the hormone than the body needs. The excess thyroid hormone called hyperthyroidism, it accelerates many processes in the body. Lack of thyroid - hypothyroidism, when it is slowing.
What is the thyroid gland
A small butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck, below the larynx - this is the thyroid gland. It produces two types of hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine
Thyroxine - the main thyroid hormone
(T4). Thyroid hormones affect metabolism
Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting
, Brain development, breathing, cardiac function and the nervous system, the hematopoietic function, body temperature, muscle strength, bone health, skin dryness, menstrual cycles, weight and cholesterol levels.
As pregnancy usually affects the function of the thyroid gland
Two pregnancy-related hormone - human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estrogen - cause an increase in the level of thyroid hormone in the blood. Similar to thyroid stimulating hormone hCG is produced by the placenta and gently stimulates the thyroid gland, causing it to produce more hormones tireodnyh. Due to high levels of estrogen production increases globulin protein which transports the thyroid hormone in the blood. This is the usual hormonal changes during pregnancy.
Tireodny hormone is critical for the normal development of the brain and nervous system of the child. During the first trimester the fetus develops at the expense of the thyroid hormone, which it receives from the placenta. At the tenth to twelfth week, the child starts to operate its own thyroid gland. Meals mother delivers a child for the production of hormones necessary iodine.
Therefore, during pregnancy needed more iodine than normal - 250 micrograms per day. The use of iodized salt and food additives will help get this important element in sufficient quantity.
In healthy women, the thyroid gland increases slightly during pregnancy, but not so much that it could be felt by touch or by visual inspection. Markedly increased iron may be a sign of thyroid disease
Thyroid disease - women at risk
and it can not be ignored. Increased levels of thyroid hormone in the blood, enlarged thyroid gland, and other symptoms common for pregnancy and thyroid disease - such as rapid fatigue - can make it difficult to diagnose during pregnancy.
What causes hyperthyroidism in pregnancy
The cause of hyperthyroidism is typically Graves' disease, it occurs once every 500 pregnancies. Graves' disease - an autoimmune disorder: the immune system produces antibodies that damage healthy cells and tissues of the body, that is, the body attacks itself. When Graves' disease the immune system produces thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin, which is sometimes called an antibody to the TSH receptor. It mimics TSH, causing the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone.
Graves' disease may first appear during pregnancy, and women who she was before, may feel the relief of symptoms in the second or third trimester. In the later stages of pregnancy, usually at total suppression of the immune system may occur in remission. Usually the disease is aggravated during the first few months after birth.
In rare cases, the cause of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is hyperemesis - constant nausea and vomiting, which can lead to drastic weight loss and dehydration. It is believed that this state provokes high levels of hCG, it also can cause temporary hyperthyroidism, which is usually held in the second half of pregnancy.
Like hyperthyroidism affects the mother and child
Possible consequences of running hyperthyroidism:
- Congestive heart failure
- Preeclampsia - a dangerous increase in blood pressure in late pregnancy
- Thyroid crisis - a sudden severe worsening of symptoms
- Low birth weight
If a woman has Grave's disease or she received medical treatment for her thyroid-stimulating antibodies can cross the placenta to get into the baby's blood and stimulate the fetal thyroid. If treatment took place with the help of anti-thyroid drugs, the development of hyperthyroidism, the child is unlikely, because the medicine is also released into the bloodstream of the fetus. If she had been treated surgically or with radioactive iodine, in her blood may still antibody even if tireodinogo hormone levels are normal. In both cases, you should inform your doctor about the past treatment of that late in pregnancy to determine the existence of potential problems with the thyroid gland in children.
Hyperthyroidism newborn can cause heart palpitations, and it can cause heart failure, irritability
Irritability - you try to control my temper
And, in some cases, thyroid enlargement - it grips the trachea and prevents normal breathing. Women suffering from Graves' disease and their newborn children must undergo a thorough medical examination.
How is diagnosed
The diagnosis of "Ray" is placed after careful study of the symptoms and testing for TSH, T3 and T4.
Some symptoms of hyperthyroidism are similar to the usual signs of a normal pregnancy - increased heart rate, intolerance to heat, fatigue. Other symptoms are more specific for hyperthyroidism: a rapid and irregular heartbeat, fine tremor, wanton weight loss or lack of normal weight gain during pregnancy, severe nausea and vomiting caused by hyperemesis.
If symptoms indicate hyperemesis probably need supersensitive analysis on TTG. He finds TTG even in very small quantities and is by far the most accurate tool for evaluating thyroid function. Usually the TSH below normal figures indicate hyperthyroidism. However, low levels of TSH may be normal pregnancy, especially during the first trimester. If you find low levels of TSH, conduct other tests that measure the levels of T3 and T4.
Low level of T4 confirms the diagnosis. In rare cases, hyperthyroidism fixed normal T4, while elevated levels of T3. Because of the changes associated with pregnancy, the test results should be interpreted with caution.
The doctor should check the blood for the maintenance of thyroid-stimulating antibodies in women with Graves' disease or treated for it previously.
How is it treated
Mild hyperthyroidism, with a low level of TSH and normal T4, does not need treatment. In more serious cases, treatment is prescribed propylthiouracil or, sometimes, methimazole, drugs that reduce the production of thyroid hormone. Antithyroid drugs in small amounts penetrate the placenta and reduce the production of thyroid hormone in the fetus. To prevent hyperthyroidism in the child, can be used as a smaller dose of the drug. In rare cases, women are intolerant of these drugs require surgery to remove the entire thyroid gland, or part of it. Radioactive iodine therapy is not suitable for pregnant women, as it may damage the fetal thyroid.