Surrogate motherhood - is it ethical to sell your body?

January 29, 2009

 Surrogacy offers the possibility of the child's birth, nurturing the body which carried out the genetic mother. This method - a real salvation for those who for various reasons are not able to self-nurturing, or has serious contraindications to it.

Unfortunately, this situation often leads various gynecological diseases or their complications. Thus, by virtue of tumor pathology surgery to remove the uterus Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) - a terrible need  Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) - a terrible need
   sometimes it becomes inevitable. Infertility The causes of infertility - heredity and lifestyle  The causes of infertility - heredity and lifestyle
   can cause inflammation of the uterus, ovaries or fallopian tubes. In addition, the absence of the uterus can be innate. Almost to the same disastrous consequences and causes severe pathology of the cardiovascular system, asthma kidney and liver failure. And if earlier it was possible to remedy the situation only by means of adoption, today, patients may choose to program in vitro fertilization (IVF) and surrogate motherhood.

The idea of ​​surrogacy appeared, apparently, with the emergence of this disease as "female infertility", and the first attempts to solve this problem have been far from the true concept of surrogacy: for carrying the heir used by young and healthy slaves, who were in fact the genetic mother of the newborn babies .  And only in the last quarter of the XX century, and not "having been" in the mother's body, there was a world famous Louise Brown - the first "test tube baby", which this year celebrates thirty years .  Louise has its own year-old son, conceived and born naturally, which eliminates all the speculation about reproductive disorders such people .  And after 8 years after the birth of Louise was registered first time in history a complete surrogacy, in which the child was born and stand a woman who is not his biological mother .  This happened in America .

At the present stage of development of surrogate motherhood has made a significant step forward, but in the different countries in this sensitive issue are ambiguous. For example, in Germany, Norway, Sweden and some other countries surrogacy is legally forbidden in Greece and Ireland, it is not prohibited, but are not regulated by law. But in countries such as Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, South Africa and in many US states surrogacy is not only allowed by law, but also more or less regulated. Although it is recognized that certain areas of this issue is still continuing to improve.

What are the conditions for surrogacy? First of all, of course, has to be mutual agreement on the implementation of the program (both from the biological parents and the surrogate mother's side). The following prerequisite must be physical and mental health of women candidates for the surrogate motherhood and the lack of her convictions. Her age should be between 20 and 35 years old. If a woman is married, the husband's consent is necessary and wife to participate in this program.

If we talk about the practical side of the program, before transplanting the embryo first cause menstrual cycles of both women's synchronized operation. At the same time the biological mother prescribers to stimulate ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?  Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
 And with respect to the surrogate mother used every possible means to create the most favorable conditions for the occurrence of pregnancy.

Where do you find a surrogate mother and how to account for all possible situations? Among the candidates for surrogacy is the ideal next of kin. If this method is not suitable, you can choose to search either in their own city (not quite ideal method due to the difficulty to maintain confidentiality), or in other cities, or even countries. A good option provides the ability to search through the Internet. But in any case, you must first become familiar with the legal framework governing all aspects of this complex issue and the opportunity to consult with experts.

  Zhiguli Andrew

Article Tags:
  • pregnancy problems

Salmonellosis during pregnancy - what is the degree of danger

June 1, 2014

  • Salmonellosis during pregnancy - what is the degree of danger
  • Treatment

 salmonellosis in pregnancy
 Salmonellosis in pregnancy rarely leads to serious complications, and yet, it is necessary to do everything possible to prevent Salmonella contamination. This is especially important if you live in a region where there is an increased risk of infection and / or which has recently been an outbreak of salmonellosis.

Pregnancy - is a joyous and exciting time in a woman's life. Because the health of the expectant mother to a great extent depends on the health of the child, each woman before pregnancy is desirable to obtain as much information about how you can prevent a variety of diseases during the childbearing. Hormonal changes in the body of a pregnant, among other things, is the weakening of the immune system, which is why women become more vulnerable to various infectious diseases. Among the variety of infections pathogens which can be transmitted to pregnant women through food - toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis Salmonellosis - features of the disease  Salmonellosis - features of the disease


Salmonellosis and pregnancy

Salmonellosis - a common food infection that develops when the body penetrate human Salmonella spp. They spread through direct or indirect contact with feces and intestinal contents of various animals, including - a person. Every year around the world a variety of infections caused by salmonella suffer tens of millions of people. Salmonella does not replicate at low temperatures (e.g., in a refrigerator or freezer) and dies quickly when heated to a temperature above 74 degrees Celsius.

The incubation period for Salmonella infection usually lasts from twelve hours to three days.

Salmonellosis is also seen in pregnant women, as well as other patients; it causes symptoms such as headache, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, chills.

Infection with Salmonella often occurs as a result of eating foods such as whole (unpasteurized) milk and whole milk products, meat, chicken and eggs that have not been sufficient heat treatment, poorly washed vegetables, berries and fruits. In some developing countries, salmonella can live even in tap water, and pregnant women during his travels to such places need to be very careful.

Currently, it is believed that for pregnant women the risk of contracting salmonella is only slightly higher than for healthy adults, on average. Moreover, if the woman is generally in good health, the probability that salmonellosis lead to any serious consequences for the health - both to itself and the child is relatively small. Nevertheless, there are certain risks. For example, if the gastrointestinal form of salmonellosis causes severe diarrhea, and the woman does not receive timely treatment, it can lead to dehydration and lack of essential nutrients. This, in turn, can be bad for the prenatal development of the child Prenatal development of the child: Week by Week  Prenatal development of the child: Week by Week

Infection with typhoid salmonella (Salmonella typhi), which is the causative agent of typhoid fever, even more dangerous. This type of Salmonella can be transmitted to the fetus, and in this case there are complications such as miscarriage Miscarriage - can you protect yourself from it?  Miscarriage - can you protect yourself from it?
   or premature birth. In addition, a child who is in utero infected with salmonella shortly after birth may occur symptoms such as high fever and diarrhea. In rare cases the infection leads to the development of meningitis in children.


Diagnosis of salmonellosis in pregnancy

If you suspect salmonella pregnant women as soon as possible to see a doctor, even if signs of infection are mild. If a healthy adult can cure salmonellosis at home during pregnancy lack of timely medical care can have severe consequences.

During a visit to the doctor is necessary to describe in detail their symptoms and tell you exactly when they first appeared. Your doctor may ask some clarifying questions concerning your power, recent travel, and so on. During the initial examination the doctor can measure body temperature, blood pressure and pulse. Next is assigned a series of laboratory procedures to determine the cause of infection. Which one

Analysis for salmonellosis in pregnancy is used depends on several factors, among them - the overall health of the patient and the severity of symptoms. Blood test reveals Salmonella infection pretty early - within five to seven days after infection, that is, shortly after the end of the incubation period, and the first symptoms. Bacteriological examination or inoculation of salmonella during pregnancy allows the blood by placing a special nutrient medium to identify infectious agents. Besides, when a blood test can detect antibodies to Salmonella.

Fecal or smear on salmonella during pregnancy can be used for the diagnosis of Salmonella infections in pregnant women, and in the course of preventive examinations of pregnant women. A smear taken from the anus, and now this procedure is more common than fecal How to pass a stool, so as not to spoil it  How to pass a stool, so as not to spoil it
 . Typically, as a preventive measure carried out this procedure in late pregnancy to avoid possible complications in childbirth-related salmonellosis. The need for such analysis due to the fact that some women salmonellosis may be asymptomatic.