Have you noticed that your child is experiencing learning difficulties - may not listen carefully, coherently express their thoughts, think, read, write, learns the rules of spelling and do not learn to read and solve math problems? How much of these symptoms occur and whether they interfere with the learning process? Perhaps the child can not concentrate on one thing, and so it seems as if he is constantly hovering in the clouds?
This is your son or daughter is not alone. Every tenth child of school age (nearly four million worldwide) suffer from unusual disorders - learning disabilities. Approximately 20% of them suffer from the disorder concentration. The concept of learning disabilities can be defined as "a significant mismatch between the person's mental abilities and the skills that he has at every stage of development."
Diagnosis of the disorder and understanding of the situation will help a smooth transition to the next stage - the search for proven ways to resolve the situation. In addition to the full and absolute support of the parent that the child needs to take place as a person achieve success and independence? Read on to learn more about the causes and symptoms of children's learning disabilities.
Learning disabilities as a disease
There is no obvious, visible at a glance features can confidently diagnose learning disabilities. Symptoms generally appear in mild form, so sometimes possible to identify learning disabilities only at a late stage of child development. Some children suffer from learning disabilities of one kind, while in others there is often some kinds of learning disabilities.
Psychologists believe that there are many causes of learning disabilities. Some of them can be set, some - not. Sometimes the disorders are associated with improper development of the brain caused by genetic factors. Alcohol or drug use during pregnancy can also trigger a violation, as well as adverse ecological environment in childhood. There are other causes of learning disabilities:
- Accidents, injuries or illness suffered by the mother during pregnancy
- The delay in development - slow development of the child as compared with peers
- In normal vision and hearing child correctly perceives ordinary sounds and sights that explains the disorder of the nervous system.
- Premature birth or illness, transferred the child shortly after birth
- The presence of toxins in the womb or in the development of unfavorable ecological environment
- Accidents, injuries or disease transferred in early childhood
The school or kindergarten can be a situation in which the child must follow the instructions of the teacher or the teacher or respond as expected. Sometimes the child can not understand the letter or did not always understand spoken language and can not retell heard. Learning disabilities becomes apparent when the gap in education does not go as the child grows. There are various methods of diagnosis of each type learning disabilities. The diagnosis of "learning disability" puts the child (or adult) only after all necessary tests.
Developmental disorders of speech and language skills. This disorder is very common and usually, it "degenerated". Children suffering from this disorder are different from their peers as follows:
- Mispronounce certain sounds (eg "kloshechny klolik" rather than "a tiny rabbit") (violation of articulation).
- Incorrect use of words to express their thoughts or wrong calls subjects (impaired speech functions).
- He understands only a small percentage of speech and incorrectly responds to hear or does not respond at all (a disorder of receptive functions).
Violations related to the educational capacities of the child: the child slowly learns to read, write and count - much slower than their peers.
- Reading disorder. This is an unusual disorder also has been called "dyslexia". Dyslexia is a difficulty associated with the language. Dyslexia have difficulties in reading, pronunciation and speech perception, as well as hard to put into words their own thoughts. There is an incredible gap between their educational potential and the real results of their training.
- Upset letter. Dysgraphia is a neurological etiology and is writing disorder in which a person has difficulty in writing letters or can not learn spelling rules, and therefore makes blunders, even in the most basic words.
- Upset account. Diskalkulyatsiya - a disorder in which the child can not cope with mathematical tasks or to understand mathematical rules and abstract mathematical concepts.
If manifestations of learning disabilities do not fall under any of the categories listed above, they include the following types.
- Ataxia and general motor skills: the child can not perform actions that require the coordination of large or small groups of muscles. For example, the child is difficult to paint a picture, cut, writing, buttoning and tying shoelaces, it is inconvenient to run and jump.
- Nonverbal disorder: a neurological dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres is difficult to interpret non-verbal child or visual-spatial information. This leads to impaired coordination, difficulty with pattern recognition, weakening mathematical ability and visual memory.
- Disorders of attention: in itself a disorder of attention has not yet considered views learning disabilities. However, the inability to concentrate distracts the child from school and have a negative impact on performance. Therefore, attention disorder could be related to violations related to the educational capacities of the child.
How to help
If a child is diagnosed with "learning disabilities", it says nothing about his mental abilities. In fact, the intelligence of the child in this case may be even higher than the average. The child is no different from his peers, he simply does not possess certain skills necessary for success in school and at work. It is important to understand this is not instill a child thinking about his disability, he grew up to be successful and confident.
Drug treatment is completely useless for the correction of learning disabilities. A marked improvement gives only parental attention and special training adapted to the needs and abilities of the child. In most developed countries operate public schools for children with such disorders. In some schools, there are special training programs for bad-and unteachable children. These programs are designed for the type of learning disability that affects a child. Over time, the child can overcome their shortcomings, to catch up with their peers and to acquire the necessary skills.