Atarax - to relieve feelings of anxiety - Mechanism of Action
April 15, 2010
- Atarax - to relieve feelings of anxiety
- Mechanism of action
Mechanism of action
Atarax (INN - hydroxyzine) - a tranquilizer and anxiolytic - drug relieves emotional stress, anxiety and fear, has a calming effect on the central nervous system. The mechanism of this action is the influence on the subcortical structures of the brain, which causes not only a calming effect, but also the simultaneous relaxation of the muscles of the skeleton and internal organs (including the bronchi - bronchodilator effect) and blood vessels (antispasmodic action). Relaxation of smooth muscles of internal organs helps to relieve pain in this area.
Atarax also has antihistamine properties, that is, inhibits the production of histamine - the main substance that causes an allergic reaction. It greatly reduces itching in patients with urticaria, eczema and dermatitis. Simultaneously Atarax slightly slows down the production of gastric juice. Furthermore, this drug has a strong anti-emetic action.
Chronic administration atarax did not reveal any adverse effects on intellectual functions of the brain (on the contrary, it improves memory and attention), as well as the phenomena of psychological dependence and addiction.
After ingestion of the drug is absorbed into the bloodstream quickly overcome the blood-brain (brain tissue misses) and placental (enters the blood and fetal tissue) barriers displaying sedative effect 30 minutes and antihistamine - an hour. Decomposed in the liver (the main breakdown product - cetirizine, is an expression of H1-blocker, that is, has an antihistamine effect).
Atarax produced in tablet form and syrup for oral administration and a solution for injection in ampoules.
Indications for admission
Atarax used for the treatment and prophylaxis of the following states:
- anxiety, adjustment disorders in society, psychomotor agitation, inner tension, irritability
Irritability - you try to control my temper
, Concern arises because of the neuroses (disorders of the nervous system that emerged after stress);
- Organic (in violation of the structure) lesions of the central nervous system, leading to increased anxiety and irritability;
- alcoholism, alcohol withdrawal (abstinence) alcohol syndrome, accompanied by signs of increased excitability;
- in the complex drug preparation for surgery as a sedative;
- in the postoperative period during the exit from the state of anesthesia as an antiemetic, analgesic and sedative;
- to relieve anxiety, nervous tension, and allergic reactions in atopic dermatitis, eczema, asthma and other allergic diseases;
- in all diseases accompanied by anxiety and fear.
Admission atarax contraindicated:
- hypersensitivity to Atarax and its decay products (such as cetirizine);
- hypersensitivity to sunlight;
- Pregnancy and breast-feeding
Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!
- in severe muscle weakness;
- Pumping at the prostate tissue, which is accompanied by difficulty urinating (impaired locomotor activity of the bladder muscles
Urinary bladder - structure and function
That increases urine stasis);
- constipation (decreased motor activity of the intestine, and therefore the promotion of the stool);
- in dementia;
- at elevated intraocular pressure;
- a tendency to seizures;
- heart rhythm disturbances and antiarrhythmic drugs;
- in violation of liver and kidney function.
During the reception Atarax should not drive a car and perform tasks requiring concentration. Atarax enhances the action of any other sedatives and hypnotics, and alcohol.
Overdose and side effects of atarax
Side effects atarax rarely pronounced, more often they disappear after reducing the dose of the drug. The bulk of the side effects associated with inhibition of the central nervous system (sometimes the drug is on the contrary, its stimulation): general weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, or vice versa, the excitement.
On the part of the autonomic nervous system (which supplies the organs and blood vessels) may experience dry mouth, increased sweating, increased blood pressure, tachycardia
Tachycardia - the body to the limit?
, Nausea, fever. Relaxing effect on the smooth muscles of internal organs and blood vessels can produce side effects such as urinary retention, constipation, disorders of accommodation of the eye (vision of objects at different distances).
Atarax can cause abnormal liver function, and allergic reactions.
If overdose all the side effects worse. This requires a gastric lavage and call an ambulance - further treatment may be performed only by a physician.
Loratadine - a long-acting antihistamine - culprit of allergic reactions - histamine
May 28, 2009
- Loratadine - a long-acting antihistamine
- The culprit of allergic reactions - histamine
The culprit of allergic reactions - histamine
With the development of any allergic reaction is released into the blood of certain substances, such as histamine. Histamine - a mediator or intermediary transmission of nerve impulses, which in normal circumstances is bound. During an allergic reaction, histamine is released into the blood and by acting on the sensitive receptors it causes bronchial spasm, lowering blood pressure, dilation of small blood vessels (capillaries), which in turn contributes to tissue edema and rashes, increased secretion of gastric juice. All sensitive to histamine receptor H1 is not divided (responsible for the reaction of bronchial tissue swelling) and H 2 (responsible for gastric acid secretion).
If the amount of histamine exceeds the optimal amount needed for a normal response of the body to the introduction of "alien", it causes damage to cells, tissues and organs - there are signs of allergies.
Antihistamine drugs - a means of blocking the histamine receptors and a histamine yield blood. H1 receptor blockers-induced histamine relieve muscle spasms of the bronchi, reduces the permeability of small blood vessels, and thus tissue swelling, prevent a sharp drop in blood pressure, make it easier for allergic reactions. H2 receptor blockers reduce gastric acid secretion and are used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Loratidine - blocker of H1-histamine receptors
Loratidine - is an antihistamine, histamine H1-receptor. By blocking the flow of histamine into the blood, loratadine has a rapid and long-lasting anti-allergic effect: it reduces itching and swelling of the tissues, relieves muscle spasm of the bronchi.
Improvement of notes within the first 30 minutes after ingestion. Antihistamines reaches a maximum effect within 8-12 hours after the onset of action and lasts more than 24 hours.
Loatidin - is the international name of the drug, which is produced by different pharmaceutical companies for more than twenty titles. In our country, it is widely known as Claritin (Schering-Plough, USA).
Indications for use
Loratadine is used for the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis
Rhinitis: a runny nose - is quite serious
(seasonal and perennial), conjunctivitis, hay fever (allergy to pollen), urticaria and angioedema (rash quickly, which merges and changes in tissue swelling), itching dermatosis, allergic reactions to insect bites and others.
Contraindications for use
Contraindications Loratadine is a hypersensitivity to the drug, pregnancy, lactation and children under two years.
Precautions should be taken loratadine during severe liver disease.
What are the side effects while taking loratadine
When receiving loratodina may be some side effects:
- From the nervous system: fatigue, anxiety
Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?
, Agitation, dizziness
Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
, headache; rarely - drowsiness, voice disorders, trembling hands, memory loss, depressed mood;
- on the part of the skin and subcutaneous tissue: skin inflammation;
- With the genitourinary system: Changing the color of urine, tenesmus, menstrual disorders, inflammation of the lining of the vagina;
- by metabolism
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
: Weight gain, sweating, thirst;
- on the part of the musculoskeletal system: leg cramps, pain in muscles and joints;
- From the digestive system: nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, change in taste, constipation or diarrhea, stomach pain, bloating, decreased or increased appetite, inflammation of the oral mucosa;
- The respiratory system: dry mucous membranes of the nose, inflamed sinuses, cough; in some cases - bronchospasm;
- From the senses: blurred vision, conjunctivitis, pain in the eyes and ears;
- on the part of the cardiovascular system: reduction or increase in blood pressure; perhaps - heartbeat.
- allergic reactions: swelling, hives, itching;
- Other: back pain, chest, fever, chills, sore breasts.
Loratidine not possess sedative effects (such as diphenhydramine), and therefore does not affect the operability. However, during the period of treatment should refrain from activities potentially hazardous activities that require high concentration and speed of psychomotor reactions (eg, driving).