Atrial fibrillation - the fear of instant death

February 26, 2009

  • Atrial fibrillation - the fear of instant death
  • Conducting system of the heart

 Atrial fibrillation
   Atrial fibrillation - is an irregular heart rhythm that often causes deterioration of blood flow to various organs. In atrial fibrillation, the upper chamber of the heart - the atria, beat erratically, not consistent with the lower cavity - ventricles. The main symptoms of atrial fibrillation are palpitations of the heart, shortness of breath and weakness.

The heart consists of four cavities - two upper (atrial) and two lower (ventricles). The right atrium is a cluster of cells - the sinus node, which literally sets the pace and rhythm of the heart. It produces pulses, which begins with each heart beat.

Normally, the first impulse passes through the atrium and then through the atrioventricular node - the ventricles. As the pulse of the atria are reduced by pumping blood into the atrium. When the pulse passes the atrioventricular node, the ventricles are reduced and throw blood from the heart and it is spent through the blood vessels throughout the body.

In atrial fibrillation, ventricular pulses move randomly, which makes them shiver, not contraction. Atrioventricular node is overloaded with impulses traveling to the ventricles. As a result, the ventricles are reduced too fast, too, but still slower than the atria. Pulse person with atrial fibrillation may vary from 100 to 175 beats per minute at the rate of 60-100.

In some patients episodes of atrial fibrillation occurs only occasionally and for others it may be a violation of chronic. Although atrial fibrillation is not usually life threatening, it is a serious disease, sometimes requiring emergency medical care.

 Atrial fibrillation - the fear of instant death


In some patients, atrial fibrillation may be asymptomatic. However, this disease often observed following features (or some of them):

  • Palpitations (the episodes are very frequent, and palpitations, which is often stronger than in very intense physical exercise)
  • Hypotension
  • Weakness, malaise
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Heavy breathing
  • Chest Pain

Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation episodes last from a few minutes to several hours and then terminated by themselves. In chronic atrial fibrillation, a heart rhythm is always irregular.

When you see any symptoms of atrial fibrillation Signs and symptoms of atrial fibrillation: do not delay visit to the doctor  Signs and symptoms of atrial fibrillation: do not delay visit to the doctor
   as soon as possible pass a medical examination. When severe pain seek immediate medical attention, as it can be a symptom of a heart attack.

 Atrial fibrillation - the fear of instant death

Causes of atrial fibrillation

In most cases, atrial fibrillation is caused by structural abnormalities and heart damage. But it may be other reasons:

  • Hypertension
  • Overactive thyroid The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones  The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
   and a variety of metabolic disorders
  • The impact of stimulants - such as alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, drugs, illegal drugs
  • Sick sinus syndrome (sinus node malfunction)
  • Emphysema and other lung diseases
  • Previously undergone surgical operation on the heart
  • Viral infections
  • Stress caused by various reasons
  • Sleep apnea

 Atrial fibrillation - the fear of instant death

Risk factors

  • Age. The older you get, the higher the risk of developing atrial fibrillation.
  • Heart diseases. If you have a personal and family history of heart disease are available and / or surgical procedures on the heart Heart surgery - when you need it?  Heart surgery - when you need it?
 , The likelihood of atrial fibrillation increases significantly.
  • Alcohol abuse. Regular and excessive alcohol consumption can be a trigger episodes of atrial fibrillation.

 Atrial fibrillation - the fear of instant death


In atrial fibrillation, blood can accumulate in the atria that in time hi to clots. If one of these clots released from the heart and gets together with the blood flow to the brain, it can cause a stroke. Especially high risk of stroke Stroke - a serious brain injury  Stroke - a serious brain injury
   in the elderly.

Uncontrolled atrial fibrillation may eventually weaken the heart and can cause heart failure - a condition in which blood circulation is deteriorated so that it ceases to provide the body with the necessary amount of oxygen and nutrients.

How to take Pananginum better to consult a doctor

June 10th, 2012

 how to take Pananginum
 Panangin best made by a physician, who will determine the dosage and duration of taking this drug. Admission panangina tablets rarely leads to an overdose of its components, it is more likely to occur when administered intravenously.

 How to take Pananginum better to consult a doctor

How does Pananginum

The composition includes panangina potassium and magnesium salts, which improve the metabolic processes in cells of the myocardium (heart muscle). This occurs due to the fact that potassium and magnesium are part of enzymes involved in various biochemical processes. But the main purpose of the potassium and magnesium ions - maintaining a normal water-salt exchange in cells.

Panangin prescribed as part of a treatment for coronary heart disease (angina, myocardial infarction), heart failure Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work  Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work
   (including the appointment of drugs called cardiac glycosides, to reduce their toxicity), cardiac arrhythmias, with a deficiency in the body of potassium and magnesium (this condition leads to violations of the heart muscle).

 How to take Pananginum better to consult a doctor

How to take

Panangin made Hungarian pharmaceutical company Gedeon Richter in oral pills and capsules. Each dragee panangina contained 158 mg of potassium aspartate, magnesium aspartate 140 mg. Panangina solution for intravenous injection is available in ampoules of 10 ml. Each ml of solution contains potassium aspartate 45, 2.

Panangin in pills prescribed for one to two tablets three times a day after meals, as acidic contents of the stomach can destroy the membrane pellet. Duration of panangina determined by a physician, but on average it takes about a month. Repeated courses of treatment must also be assigned a doctor.

Intravenous drip panangina held. Drip solution prepared by dissolving the contents of one or two vials (10 - 20 mL) in 100 mL of 5% glucose solution Glucose: The energy source  Glucose: The energy source
 . Droppers are doing a speed of no more than 25 drops per minute one - two times a day, course of treatment - five days. You can enter and Pananginum jet, spreading all the same 5% glucose solution. But the administration has to be very slow, with the rate of 5 ml per minute.

 How to take Pananginum better to consult a doctor

Side effects

Pananginum has a number of side effects associated with overdoses of potassium and magnesium. If ingestion severe hyperkalemia and hypermagnesemia usually does not happen, however, can develop the following side effects:

  • of the central and peripheral nervous system - the sensory disturbances (numbness, formication of the body) due to high content of calcium in the blood, reducing neuromuscular reflexes, convulsions induced higher blood magnesium;
  • on the part of the cardiovascular system - a violation of the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles of the heart (atrioventricular block), an increase in the number of premature beats (paradoxical reaction) caused by the high content of potassium in the blood, a sharp drop in blood pressure Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?  Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?
 , Redness of the skin, feeling of heat caused by the high content of magnesium in the blood;
  • from the gastrointestinal tract - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, discomfort or pain in the pancreas region (gastritis in patients with reduced gastric acid secretion, or inflammation of the gall bladder);
  • by the respiratory system - respiratory depression caused by elevated blood levels of magnesium.

But it is much more dangerous than the side effects that may occur against the background of intravenous panangina. This may develop signs of hyperkalemia and hypermagnesemia.

 How to take Pananginum better to consult a doctor

Simtomy hyperkalemia and hypermagnesemia

Hyperkalemia - is to increase the concentration of potassium in the blood serum, which is accompanied by severe violations of water-salt metabolism in the cells and the acid-base balance. Hyperkalemia is clinically manifested as a characteristic of the syndrome, the severity of which depends on the concentration of potassium in the blood.

A typical manifestation of hyperkalemia is a rapid increase in drowsiness and confusion, pain in the muscles of the limbs, in the language. After a while there paralysis and paresis as the skeletal and smooth muscles of internal organs. It lowers blood pressure, heart rate becoming rare, may develop heart block (disorders of conduction of electrical impulses in the myocardium), and cardiac arrest.

Increasing the concentration of magnesium in the blood (gipermagniemiya) is soothing, sometimes narcotic effect may result in respiratory arrest Stop breathing (apnea) during sleep - upper airway obstruction  Stop breathing (apnea) during sleep - upper airway obstruction
 . It lowers the tone of the skeletal muscles due to violation of the mechanism of neuromuscular transmission.

Panangin not a harmless drug, it is better to take a strictly prescribed by a doctor.

Galina Romanenko

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  • Pananginum