- Atrial fibrillation - the fear of instant death
- Conducting system of the heart
Conducting system of the heart
The human heart has the ability to shrink under the influence of pulses that occur within itself (automatic). Automata provides special muscles that form a series of nodes and beams in the heart - vascular system, which includes:
- sinoatrial node - in the right atrium, is the leading event of nerve impulses from him depart to the atrioventricular node branches;
- atrioventricular (atrioventricular) node - located in the atrial septum right away by branch impulses are conducted to the ventricles; It can generate nerve impulses when not working sinoatrial node.
In the heart there are additional paths that connect the atria and ventricles to bypass the atrioventricular node, which are important during the pulses to the ventricles in the case of destruction of the atrioventricular node.
What is atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation - a heart rhythm disturbance, in which due to conduction abnormalities occur chaotic contraction of muscle fibers of the atria, but the atria as a whole is not reduced, the duration of cardiac cycles varies considerably, and is random in nature, the excitement is not passed in a timely manner ventricles, ventricles unevenly, with frequency of 250-300 beats. 1 minute, disturbed coordination between contractions of the atria and ventricles.
Atrial fibrillation can have a more or less permanent nature or take the form of attacks.
Causes of atrial fibrillation and its prevalence
Atrial fibrillation can occur under such severe heart damage as malformations of the mitral valve (the valve between the left atrium and ventricle), ischemic heart disease, increased thyroid function
The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
(hyperthyroidism), alcoholism and so on. The attacks of atrial fibrillation can occur in the background of myocardial infarction, acute poisoning by certain drugs (cardiac glycosides, caffeine) or alcohol. Sometimes an attack occurs against a background of tension and chronic stress
How to beat stress? Create an oasis
The frequency of the prevalence of atrial fibrillation is less than 1% of people under the age of 60 years and more than 6% in patients older than 60 years.
How is an attack of atrial fibrillation
The attacks of atrial fibrillation can occur in different ways, it all depends on the condition of the heart. Patients may not even notice that they changed heart rhythm or feel vague discomfort in the heart. But often there is an attack in a sudden chaotic heartbeat. If the ventricular rate is very high, there is a general weakness, dizziness,
Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
, Semiconscious state, and sometimes fainting.
Complications of atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation can cause acute heart failure - the heart can not cope with their work, which can be the result of pulmonary edema. The disease can also be complicated by thromboembolism
Thromboembolism: severe complications
(thrombus occludes the blood vessel).
No less common complication of atrial fibrillation is an ischemic stroke - the result of insufficient blood supply to the brain Tacna.
What examinations are required for atrial fibrillation
In order to establish the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to identify itself atrial fibrillation, the conditions of its origin and termination, as well as to identify the disease that led to it.
To detect atrial fibrillation need to do an electrocardiogram (ECG), but on a normal ECG revealed atrial fibrillation do not always (attack can pass). Therefore the ECG recorded during the day (this is called Holter monitoring).
Most arrhythmias occur during exercise, so to measure the level of permissible physical activity and evaluation of preventive action of antiarrhythmic drugs sometimes do an ECG with exercise and the intake of drugs.
For accurate diagnosis of arrhythmias performed electrophysiological study of the heart with the introduction of a catheter into the cavity of the heart.
Treatment of atrial fibrillation
Treatment of atrial fibrillation includes treatment of the underlying disease (eg, myocardial infarction), and to restore normal heart rhythm.
As a rule, the treatment of arrhythmia begins with the appointment of antiarrhythmic drugs, which should only appoint a doctor, because they all have their own indications and contraindications, to understand this the patient can not.
In some cases, to eliminate atrial fibrillation radiofrequency ablation surgery is performed when a normal heart rhythm is restored by cauterization of very small, carefully calibrated portion of the heart using a special catheter.
Another type of operation - is to restore a normal heart rhythm using a pacemaker (pacemaker). A pacemaker is usually implanted in the left subclavian region, the electrodes are held by him through a puncture in the subclavian vein to the heart.