- Fibroblasts: the mystery of the connective tissue
- Collagen and elastic fibers
Fibroblasts - a kind of cells that synthesize and maintain the extracellular matrix of many living tissues. They form the basis of the structure (the stroma) of tissues and play an important role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common connective tissue cells of animals.
Fibroblasts and connective tissue
The main function of fibroblasts - to maintain the structural integrity of connective tissue, is constantly producing precursors of the extracellular matrix. They all secrete extracellular matrix components, the composition of which determines the physical properties of the connective tissue.
Fibroblasts are morphologically heterogeneous, and differ depending on the location and the specific tasks performed. After ectopic transplants fibroblasts can preserve the memory of the tissue from which the fence was made of cells, at least not for several generations.
In contrast to epithelial cells, fibroblasts can migrate slowly and they do not form a shell body structures.
The role of carnosine in maintaining cell activity
The dipeptide L-carnosine has a positive effect on cultured human fibroblasts. Physiological concentrations of L-carnosine can increase the lifespan of fibroblasts in vitro and slow down their aging process. Moreover, fibroblasts become "younger" than when they are placed in solution with L-carnosine, and begin to age rapidly when L-carnosine removed. These properties were not detected in its optical isomer - D-carnosine.
Telomerase helps "reset" circadian rhythm fibroblasts
Synchronization of circadian signals is crucial for maintaining the normal functioning of the human body. However, aging is penalized for synchronization of peripheral circadian rhythms that lead to various diseases, the development of which is associated with aging. Until now, scientists had very little information about changes vibrational rhythms in senescent cells. Recent studies have shown that the aging of cells of some muscle tissue alters the circadian rhythm by influencing the expression of genes that control circadian rhythms. Moreover, it was found that this change can be stopped and even reversed, if the restore operation of telomerase.
To determine whether the recovery of telomerase restore the circadian rhythm in aging cells of other types, fibroblasts were used as models for in-depth study of cell communication between cellular aging and changes in circadian rhythm. It was found that the expression of genes controlling circadian rhythms in senescent fibroblasts has been substantially weakened, but with the help of telomerase it failed to improve. Based on these results it can be concluded that the recovery of telomerase - good way to re-synchronize circadian rhythm peripheral that in aging tissues violated.
Activation of the metabolism of fibroblasts in the skin
Elasticity and tone of the skin with age is gradually reduced. These changes begin in the dermis (skin layer positioned under the epidermis) and connected to the inability of cells, especially fibroblasts, regenerated molecules forming the extracellular matrix. Aging skin is also characterized by a decrease in the density of the epidermis and the flattening of the basal membrane.
The newly created three-dimensional systems in which the cells develop within the porous structure, which recreates the human extracellular matrix of the dermis, are effective ways to demonstrate the biological effects of anti-aging agents. In one recent study used a model of the dermis, formed from collagen, chitosan, glycosaminoglycans, which "settle" normal human fibroblasts, which are synthesized extracellular matrix. Today, these models are widely used to study the most promising compounds for anti-aging.
In the course of the study were studied protein hydrolysates - natural peptides, the properties of which have so far been little studied. The three-dimensional model of the dermis of these peptides
Peptides: The new panacea?
increased the proliferation of fibroblasts 40% to lead to increased production of collagen by 165% and elastin - 116%. Furthermore, in a study using a model of the dermis it showed that soy peptides significantly increase the thickness and density of the epidermis.
The destruction of the fibroblasts and the aging process
The appearance of the skin is one of the main indicators of age. During the last decade, science has made significant progress toward understanding the underlying mechanisms of aging of human skin. This knowledge will provide the basis for the creation and use of new anti-aging agents. One of the key features of aging of the skin - the fragmentation of collagen and dermal matrix. Fragmentation is the result of specific enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases), and it, in turn, gives the structural integrity of the dermis. Fibroblasts, which generate collagen matrix can not attach to the collagen fragmented. As a result, the fibroblasts are destroyed.
The aging skin due to destruction of fibroblast collagen produced little, and a lot of enzymes that degrade collagen. Due to this aging becomes continuous process, which in itself can not stop. In the clinical setting it has been proved that the use of retinoic acid, laser resurfacing and intradermal injections of hyaluronic acid stimulates the production of new, intact collagen. This can easily be attached to collagen, fibroblasts, resulting in production and collagen breakdown is harmonized, and slows down the aging process.