Hepatitis A - an infectious disease that is a companion of hepatitis B

April 1, 2014

 Hepatitis D
 Hepatitis D is not a separate disease, as it causes the virus can develop only in the presence of hepatitis B virus But while hepatitis D virus complicates during the main infection caused by the hepatitis B virus The causative agent of hepatitis D may enter the human body, at the same time as the hepatitis B virus, or at any time after onset.


How is hepatitis D

Hepatitis D (Delta) - a viral disease - satellite of hepatitis B transmission routes of hepatitis A, such as viral hepatitis B: an infection enters the body with the blood of a patient with blood transfusions, organ transplants, various medical procedures and operations (if wrong Reins processing equipment), as well as using the same syringe by different people (for example, to inject drugs) and through sexual contact (if there was a violation of the integrity of the mucous membranes of the vagina or rectum).

It is also possible transplacental transmission of the virus of hepatitis D, then there is a transfer through the placenta from mother to fetus. Today, we do not exclude also home mode of transmission of the virus, for example, in contact with the blood of an infected person through small wounds or mikrossadiny on the skin, but this mode of transmission is extremely rare.

Hepatitis D virus can enter the human body, simultaneously with the hepatitis B virus, or at any time thereafter and always aggravates the disease.


Symptoms of hepatitis A

The incubation period for hepatitis A lasts two to three months. All symptoms of hepatitis D inseparable manifestations of hepatitis B. If hepatitis B and D enter the body at the same time, they enter the bloodstream to the liver attached to its cells (hepatocytes). The virus infected cells are broken metabolism, and they die. The death of hepatocytes infected simultaneously with two types of hepatitis viruses, is faster than with only their lesion hepatitis B.

Symptoms of the disease develop acute, with severe intoxication (fever, Wilno headaches, pains in the joints, and so on), the intensity increasing jaundice, which may be accompanied by central nervous system in the form of hallucinations, confusion (manifestations of hepatic encephalopathy) and end coma and the death of the patient. However, chronic hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   D develops in such patients is significantly less than with superinfection.

If the virus infection Hepatitis D occurs against the background of an existing hepatitis B (ie superinfection occurs), its course dramatically exacerbated in the absence of adequate treatment ends, or the death of a patient or a transition in rapidly progressive chronic form (active hepatitis) and liver cirrhosis with edema and ascites.


Diagnosis of Hepatitis D

To confirm hepatitis D examined and blood by PCR using immunoassays. Another important factor is the biochemical analysis of blood.

By PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed a certain area of ​​HCV RNA D, specificity - 100%. Antibodies to hepatitis D virus appear in the blood of a patient two months after infection. All patients with hepatitis B periodically check for the presence of hepatitis B virus in the body D and antibodies to it.

Biochemical analysis of blood reveals the degree of liver dysfunction. In predzheltushnogo period in the blood revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase). In icteric period in the blood bilirubin (mainly direct). For hepatitis B is also characterized Dysproteinemia - a violation of the ratio of the blood protein fractions: albumin decreases and increases - globulins (in particular gammaglobulins from which antibodies are formed).


Treatment of hepatitis D

Treatment of acute hepatitis Acute hepatitis - always seriously  Acute hepatitis - always seriously
   D is carried out in a hospital. It begins with the appointment of bed rest and diet 5 A - chemically and mechanically gentle cooking that takes an increased load on the digestion of the liver and the gastrointestinal tract.

The patient was immediately appointed detoxification therapy and adsorbents. Detoxification therapy - is the introduction of large amounts of pharmaceutical solutions, which are removed from the body of pathogens and their toxins and toxic products of tissue decay. Intravenously administered saline, 5% glucose, reopoligljukin other solutions. Due adsorbents used smectite Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet  Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet
 , Activated carbon Activated carbon - old but indispensable  Activated carbon - old but indispensable
 , Enterosgel and other drugs that are deposited on the surface all the toxins and remove them from the intestines.

Because antiviral drugs are mainly used drugs interferon, which are selected and assigned individually. At the same time appoint hepatoprotectors - drugs, positive effect on the liver cells.

Prevention of hepatitis D is the same as and prevention of hepatitis B, including the prevention of hepatitis D is a vaccination against hepatitis B.

Viral hepatitis A is not an independent disease, however, it can greatly complicate the course of hepatitis B.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • hepatitis

Infectious hepatitis - often has a viral nature

March 7, 2014

 infectious hepatitis
 Infectious hepatitis - an acute or chronic inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of the liver, which is most often caused by viral pathogens. Nevertheless, sometimes called hepatitis and bacterial infections, such as syphilis or leptospirosis.


Infectious hepatitis in humans - causes of

The cause of infectious hepatitis in people often are hepatotropic (selectively affecting liver tissue) viruses. Today we know 9 kinds of hepatotropic viruses: A, B, C, D, E, G, F, TTV, SEN.

Of these viruses, hepatitis A and E cause infectious diseases that, in most cases, complete recovery end with clearance of the virus from the body. These pathogens are transmitted by the fecal-oral route through the hands, food and water contaminated with the feces of the patient. It is also possible sexual transmission (particularly through homosexual contact, at which the injury to the rectal mucosa) and blood transfusion patient health.

The rest of the hepatotropic viruses (B, C, D, G, F, TTV, SEN) are transmitted through blood transfusion of blood from an infected person healthy, reusing the same syringes and needles by different people (eg, drug addicts), acupuncture, applied to skin tattoos during treatment at the dentist and so on. These viruses can also be transmitted sexually. Acute hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
 Caused by these viruses often becomes chronic, and can move in cirrhosis and liver cancer. Thus, in the absence of proper treatment of acute hepatitis B Hepatitis B - a dangerous inflammation of the liver  Hepatitis B - a dangerous inflammation of the liver
   It becomes chronic in about 10% of cases, acute hepatitis C. Hepatitis C - "the tender murderer"  Hepatitis C - "the tender murderer"
   - 80%, and acute hepatitis D - almost always.

Also hepatotropic viruses there are viruses that can affect various organs and systems of the human body, including the liver. These pathogens are cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses, Epstein - Barr virus, flavovirusy (arthropod-borne, causing yellow fever, etc.), yellow fever virus, rubella, mumps, HIV.

Bacterial pathogens can cause hepatitis and leptospirosis syphilis.


Infectious hepatitis caused by the hepatitis A virus - symptoms

Viral hepatitis A Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands!  Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands!
   (Botkin's disease) traditionally called infectious or epidemic. In the course of the disease distinguish four periods: incubation, prodromal, icteric and convalescence.

The incubation period of the disease (time from infection to the appearance of his first symptoms) is 20-40 days. Anicteric or prodromal period lasts 1-2 weeks. Starts disease is more acute, with a significant rise in temperature, headache, joint pain, sometimes with a sore throat and runny nose. In some cases, even in this period, pain in the abdomen (the right hypochondrium). The disease is accompanied by weakness, tearfulness, mood variability.

Jaundice period lasts about a month and is shown rapidly increasing jaundice hepatocellular origin, itchy skin, dark urine and feces discolored. The liver in this period increased in size, painful. Simultaneously impaired secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and kidneys. This leads to severe violations of food digestion (bloating, intestinal cramps, nausea, vomiting, constipation and diarrhea).

The convalescence period, which lasts from 1 to 12 weeks, there is a regression of all the symptoms of the disease. Residual effects may persist for several weeks or months in the form of weakness, fatigue, irritability, abdominal pain and indigestion.

Hepatitis A may have a protracted course, but almost never goes into a chronic disease.


Diagnosis and treatment of infectious hepatitis

If you suspect an infectious hepatitis is primarily carried out biochemical analysis of blood. In hepatitis in the patient's blood is found elevated liver enzymes (ALT, AST), which are released into the bloodstream in the destruction of liver cells. The icteric phase is found in the blood increased bilirubin.

Infectious agents in the blood detected by PCR, using immunological studies reveal antibodies to them.

From instrumental studies carried ultrasound, if necessary - a computer or magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment of acute infectious hepatitis begins with the prescription of bed rest, fluid intake, and sparing diet (table number 5). Medical treatment depends on the causative pathogen and the severity of the disease. But in any case is assigned to detoxification therapy, drugs that protect and regenerate liver cells (hepatoprotectors), vitamins.

Infectious hepatitis caused by different infectious agents, have a different course and requires an individual approach to treatment.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • hepatitis