Autoimmune hepatitis - the immune system rejects its own liver cells

March 8, 2014

 autoimmune hepatitis
 Autoimmune hepatitis is found more often in women, for some reason - has not yet been established. Often, too, there is a combination of autoimmune hepatitis with autoimmune diseases of other organs and systems. Experts note that the incidence of autoimmune hepatitis is growing.


Causes of autoimmune hepatitis

The mechanism of the development of autoimmune hepatitis is a birth defect of membrane receptors of liver cells - that it often leads to a defect of the immune system and the appearance of antibodies in the blood to the cells of the liver tissue. Like other autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is more common in women, the overall incidence is approximately 15-20 per 100 thousand population. Furthermore, in the autoimmune process involved not only the liver, but other organs, such as kidneys, pancreas, thyroid The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones  The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
 , Salivary gland, and so on.

Based on the results of immunological studies described three types of autoimmune hepatitis:

  • Type 1 - in the blood of the patient detect antibodies to nuclear antigens of liver cells (ANA) and smooth muscle of the bile duct (SMA); disease often occurs in an active form;
  • Type 2 - in the patient's blood to detect antibodies liver and kidney microsomes (LKM-1); the disease is more common in young people and rapidly into cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Type 3 - in the blood of the patient detect antibodies to soluble hepatic antigen (SLA) and hepato-pancreatic antigen (Lr); the least studied type of autoimmune hepatitis.

Fully causes of autoimmune hepatitis, have not been studied. Sometimes this type of hepatitis develop after acute hepatitis and takes place in an atypical form.


Autoimmune hepatitis - symptoms

The disease often begins gradually with the appearance of general weakness, fatigue, decreased performance, a small increase in temperature. The patient becomes irritable, tearful, sometimes - aggressive. Headaches, joint pain Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?  Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?
   without swelling and deformation. These symptoms are joining the bitterness and dry mouth, loss of appetite, alternating diarrhea and constipation, bloating, pain and heaviness in the upper abdomen and right hypochondrium, nausea, sometimes vomiting, weight loss.

The appearance of jaundice staining sclera and skin accompanied by itching. On the skin there are multiple telangiectasia (spider veins), bruising, bleeding from the nose, gums, uterine bleeding Uterine bleeding outside of menstruation - a sign of a serious breach  Uterine bleeding outside of menstruation - a sign of a serious breach
   and so on. Liver patients increased, dense, slightly painful, sometimes reveals an enlarged spleen.

Autoimmune hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   children often develop on the background of violations of immunity, with the starting torque can be any infection, particularly viral.


Diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis

For the diagnosis requires a complete examination of the patient. Conducts laboratory biochemical immunological blood tests, ultrasound of the abdomen, percutaneous liver biopsy under ultrasound with subsequent histological examination of the tissue taken to clarify the diagnosis and determine the degree of activity of pathological process and stage of the disease.

The presence of autoimmune hepatitis is confirmed by the presence in the blood of a violation of liver function (increased levels of bilirubin and liver enzymes - AST, ALT), the emergence of high content gammaglobulins (especially immunoglobulin G), in the detection of biopsy material character of autoimmune hepatitis.

Of particular importance is the detection of antibodies to various substances liver tissue. To confirm the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis requires a high titer of antibodies (at least 1:80 1:20 adults and children).


Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis

The treatment of autoimmune hepatitis requires the elimination of heavy physical exertion, stress, diet (table number 5). At quickly progressing disease course prescribed glucocorticoid hormones and cytotoxic drugs - drugs that suppress the immune system. This treatment is also part of the diagnosis - the patient's condition improved rapidly occurs only when the nature of autoimmune hepatitis.


Forecast autoimmune hepatitis

If autoimmune hepatitis is not treated, it progresses continuously and virtually no spontaneous remissions. Improvements are being short-term, without normalization of liver function. As a result of such a flow is formed cirrhosis. If conservative treatment is ineffective, it is recommended a liver transplant, after which the five-year survival is over 90%.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • hepatitis

Imodium and alcohol - can not be combined

December 30, 2012

 Imodium and alcohol
 The instructions for this medicinal product does not say anything about that at the time of his admission can not drink alcohol. However, the inability of such combinations arises from the mechanism of action Imodium Imodium - for the treatment of diarrhea  Imodium - for the treatment of diarrhea
   and alcohol - both can contribute to inhibition of breathing center located in the brain.

 Imodium and alcohol - can not be combined

What is Imodium and how it works

Active ingredient Imodium is loperamide which inhibits the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, transmitting nerve impulses to the smooth muscles of the intestine. As a result of sharply reduced motor activity of the intestine with the simultaneous contraction of the sphincter (circular muscle) located in the anus. Fecal moving slowly through the intestines. A portion of the liquid is sucked back and salts, which prevents dehydration.

However, such an effect on neurotransmitter can not be reflected on the condition of the central nervous system (CNS), the nerve impulses which is carried out, including, by acetylcholine. Therefore, a side effect of Imodium can be lethargy, drowsiness and dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet

But overdose CNS side effects are amplified and can be manifested in the form of stupefaction, impaired coordination of movements, as well as respiratory depression center, located in the brain. Imodium peculiarity is that an overdose of it can come not just by increasing the dose of the drug, but also in the human liver.

 Imodium and alcohol - can not be combined

The effect of alcohol on the human body

Alcohol is a poison, which primarily affects the nerve cells (neurons) and liver cells (hepatocytes), causing them severe metabolic disorders Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
 Until death (depending on the strength and dose of alcohol). This in spite of universal ideas not alcohol has a stimulating and depressing effects on the central nervous system.

The trick is that the central nervous system has two mutually balanced process - excitation and inhibition. Alcohol inhibits the processes of inhibition that leads to arousal. But this is only the case if the light intoxication. At moderate and severe intoxication oppressed and excitation processes, which leads to lethargy, drowsiness, lethargy and inhibition of the activity of all parts of the brain, down to the vital centers in the medulla oblongata. Thus, under the influence of alcohol is first vasodilation, followed by a sharp narrowing, which can lead to the development of ischemic stroke Stroke - a serious brain injury  Stroke - a serious brain injury
 And high blood pressure can lead to rupture of the blood vessel wall and hemorrhagic stroke.

But the main cause of death with an overdose of alcohol is to stop breathing - it is this vital center is affected first.

 Imodium and alcohol - can not be combined

What happens if you take Imodium and alcohol at the same time

At the same time taking Imodium and alcohol is a danger not only to the last action on the brain cells, but the cells of the liver. As already mentioned, and Imodium, and alcohol has a depressant effect on the central nervous system. If these agents will act at the same time, even small doses of them can cause irreparable damage to the brain. Especially dangerous is the impact of this combination on the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata.

But the problem is exacerbated by the fact that the expansion of Imodium for food exchange occurs in the liver. Therefore, manufacturers of the drug (pharmaceutical company Janssen, part of Johnson & Johnson) emphasize that the human liver Imodium should be taken with caution. Alcohol also destroys the cells of the liver and liver function is significant intoxication reduced, thereby increasing the concentration in the blood Imodium and overdose.

As a result, the respiratory center will act increased dose of Imodium and alcohol - you can imagine what impact this will have on the respiratory center. Based on this mechanism of action of Imodium and alcohol, it can be concluded that using these drugs at the same time, the person poses a threat to his own life.

And, considering the fact that a person does not drink is unlikely to be Imodium drink alcohol, the risk is greatly enhanced. The fact that the majority of people, systematic drinkers have liver problems. Alcoholic liver damage may occur at the beginning completely unnoticed by the patient, and may of them do not even suspect. However, hepatic function is reduced, which further increases the risk of overdose Imodium.

Imodium and alcohol should not be taken simultaneously.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • Imodium