Autoimmune hepatitis is found more often in women, for some reason - has not yet been established. Often, too, there is a combination of autoimmune hepatitis with autoimmune diseases of other organs and systems. Experts note that the incidence of autoimmune hepatitis is growing.
Causes of autoimmune hepatitis
The mechanism of the development of autoimmune hepatitis is a birth defect of membrane receptors of liver cells - that it often leads to a defect of the immune system and the appearance of antibodies in the blood to the cells of the liver tissue. Like other autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is more common in women, the overall incidence is approximately 15-20 per 100 thousand population. Furthermore, in the autoimmune process involved not only the liver, but other organs, such as kidneys, pancreas, thyroid
The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
, Salivary gland, and so on.
Based on the results of immunological studies described three types of autoimmune hepatitis:
- Type 1 - in the blood of the patient detect antibodies to nuclear antigens of liver cells (ANA) and smooth muscle of the bile duct (SMA); disease often occurs in an active form;
- Type 2 - in the patient's blood to detect antibodies liver and kidney microsomes (LKM-1); the disease is more common in young people and rapidly into cirrhosis of the liver;
- Type 3 - in the blood of the patient detect antibodies to soluble hepatic antigen (SLA) and hepato-pancreatic antigen (Lr); the least studied type of autoimmune hepatitis.
Fully causes of autoimmune hepatitis, have not been studied. Sometimes this type of hepatitis develop after acute hepatitis and takes place in an atypical form.
Autoimmune hepatitis - symptoms
The disease often begins gradually with the appearance of general weakness, fatigue, decreased performance, a small increase in temperature. The patient becomes irritable, tearful, sometimes - aggressive. Headaches, joint pain
Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?
without swelling and deformation. These symptoms are joining the bitterness and dry mouth, loss of appetite, alternating diarrhea and constipation, bloating, pain and heaviness in the upper abdomen and right hypochondrium, nausea, sometimes vomiting, weight loss.
The appearance of jaundice staining sclera and skin accompanied by itching. On the skin there are multiple telangiectasia (spider veins), bruising, bleeding from the nose, gums, uterine bleeding
Uterine bleeding outside of menstruation - a sign of a serious breach
and so on. Liver patients increased, dense, slightly painful, sometimes reveals an enlarged spleen.
Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
children often develop on the background of violations of immunity, with the starting torque can be any infection, particularly viral.
Diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis
For the diagnosis requires a complete examination of the patient. Conducts laboratory biochemical immunological blood tests, ultrasound of the abdomen, percutaneous liver biopsy under ultrasound with subsequent histological examination of the tissue taken to clarify the diagnosis and determine the degree of activity of pathological process and stage of the disease.
The presence of autoimmune hepatitis is confirmed by the presence in the blood of a violation of liver function (increased levels of bilirubin and liver enzymes - AST, ALT), the emergence of high content gammaglobulins (especially immunoglobulin G), in the detection of biopsy material character of autoimmune hepatitis.
Of particular importance is the detection of antibodies to various substances liver tissue. To confirm the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis requires a high titer of antibodies (at least 1:80 1:20 adults and children).
Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis
The treatment of autoimmune hepatitis requires the elimination of heavy physical exertion, stress, diet (table number 5). At quickly progressing disease course prescribed glucocorticoid hormones and cytotoxic drugs - drugs that suppress the immune system. This treatment is also part of the diagnosis - the patient's condition improved rapidly occurs only when the nature of autoimmune hepatitis.
Forecast autoimmune hepatitis
If autoimmune hepatitis is not treated, it progresses continuously and virtually no spontaneous remissions. Improvements are being short-term, without normalization of liver function. As a result of such a flow is formed cirrhosis. If conservative treatment is ineffective, it is recommended a liver transplant, after which the five-year survival is over 90%.