- Dyspepsia - frustration of a chair
Dyspepsia - a term denoting a group of different origin disorders of the digestive tract. Indigestion can cause a variety of factors, but the main symptom of dyspepsia is always the same - pain or discomfort in the abdomen. In addition, the indigestion is accompanied by heartburn, bloating, belching, feeling of fullness even after eating small amounts of food, nausea and, in extreme cases, vomiting.
Symptoms of dyspepsia - a phenomenon episodic rather than continuous. With the attacks of dyspepsia faces from time to time, most people - for example, after a large portion of spicy food often observed heartburn, one of the symptoms of indigestion. In most cases, dyspeptic symptoms disappear on their own after a short time, but sometimes neuralgia is a sign of a more serious disease and can cause significant damage to health.
The most common causes of dyspepsia
Non-ulcer or functional dyspepsia - indigestion for no apparent reason. Practically, this means that the dyspeptic symptoms are not caused by ulcers, acid reflux, gastritis and other diseases, no damage of esophageal mucosa are observed. Functional dyspepsia - one of the most common causes of the characteristic symptoms of dyspepsia observed in six out of ten cases. The exact cause of this phenomenon is not clear, though in some cases, functional dyspepsia can be attributed to a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (helicobacter pylori).
Gastric and duodenal ulcers - damage to the mucous membrane of the stomach or intestine, the images obtained by endoscopy, looks like a small red cup-shaped recess. Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers are sometimes referred to collectively as peptic ulcer.
Duodenitis (inflammation of the duodenum) and gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) - inflammatory diseases of the digestive system, which may be preceded by an ulcer.
Acid reflux disease, esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux. Acid reflux - a syndrome in which acid enters the esophagus from the stomach. This condition can cause esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus). The generic term "gastroesophageal reflux" is indicated by acid reflux, complicated or not complicated by esophagitis.
Hiatal hernia or hiatal hernia - displacement of part of the stomach into the chest cavity through a defect in the esophageal opening. Hiatal hernia often provokes gastroesophageal reflux.
Admission medications - some medications can cause indigestion as a side effect. Very often such a phenomenon is observed when taking anti-inflammatory drugs (including aspirin, ibuprofen
Ibuprofen: anti-inflammatory drug
, Diclofenac). Some other drugs may precipitate or aggravate indigestion - including antibiotics
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Steroids, nitrates, bisphosphonates, theophylline.
Helicobacter pylori (helicobacter pylori) - bacteria that affects the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum. This type of bacterial infection - a phenomenon quite common, facing him in one or another period of up to twenty-five percent of the population. In the absence of proper treatment for a bacterial infection may continue until the end of life. Diagnosis of infection complicated by the fact that the defeat of the body's bacteria are usually asymptomatic. Nevertheless, it is the bacteria Helicobacter pylori - one of the most common causes of peptic ulcers - three out of twenty cases of a bacterial infection of the mucous lesion bacteria gives rise to gastric ulcers or duodenal ulcer. Furthermore, presumably, the bacterial infection may cause functional dyspepsia, gastritis and duodenitis.
The method of treatment of dyspepsia in the first place depends on the cause, provoke the characteristic symptoms - it is natural that in functional dyspepsia and gastric dyspepsia treatment will be completely different. If symptoms of dyspepsia caused by taking certain medications, they are necessary to give by an alternative method of treatment.
The basic method of suppressing the unpleasant symptoms of dyspepsia - antacids, alkaline drugs that can neutralize the acid in the stomach. As a rule, a single dose of the drug helps to quickly get rid of the discomfort. In milder cases of episodic dyspepsia antacids - the only required treatment.
A more effective alternative to antacids - acid-suppressing drugs commonly prescribed in cases of suspected or acid reflux esophagitis. There are two groups of acid-suppressing drugs - proton pump inhibitors and H2-blockers, different methods of neutralizing acid production by cells of the gastric mucosa. Typically, primarily to suppress dyspeptic symptoms caused by diseases of the esophagus, used proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole).
Reduction of acidity helps in most cases dyspepsia, regardless of cause. Usually, the action of acid-suppressing drugs can get rid of the unpleasant symptoms of a very short time. If the symptoms return after stopping these drugs is generally recommended further treatment.
Prokinetic - a group of drugs that normalize peristalsis and accelerate the passage of food through the digestive tract (the most common drugs prokinetic group - domperidone and metoclopramide). Prokinetics not used in usual cases dyspepsia and generally recommended only when the acid-suppressing drugs do not help to suppress the symptoms of indigestion. Especially effective in suppressing prokinetiki dyspepsia symptoms such as bloating and belching
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A clear link between the way of life and the emergence of dyspepsia is not revealed, however, prevent the occurrence of unpleasant symptoms helps compliance with a few simple rules. Thus, for example, dyspepsia prevented in some cases makes the rejection of certain foods and beverages - e.g., tomatoes, chocolate, hot and spicy foods, hot drinks, coffee and alcohol. Quitting smoking also contributes to the normalization of digestion in some cases.
If indigestion is caused by acid reflux and heartburn becomes the main symptom, you can try the following:
- Try as little as possible to sit and lean forward, bent - it increases the pressure on the stomach and can aggravate acid reflux.
- If symptoms of dyspepsia appear mostly at night, it is best to go to bed with an empty stomach - ie not eating three hours before bedtime
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and do not drink for two hours before bedtime.