Salmonellosis - features of the disease - What are the symptoms

June 1, 2014

  • Salmonellosis - features of the disease
  • As shown
  • Treatment

 What are the symptoms of salmonellosis

What are the symptoms of salmonellosis

Salmonella can cause many forms of infections, from strongly expressed to asymptomatic. The incubation period for salmonellosis usually lasts from 6 to 72 hours, but there is evidence that in some cases it can last more than ten days. The most common symptoms of salmonellosis are diarrhea, intestinal infection, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps, fever (usually 38 to 39 degrees Celsius). Some patients have had symptoms such as blood in the stool, headache and muscle pain.

Usually the symptoms of salmonellosis are just 3-7 days. However, the bacteria remain for a while in the gut, and complete recovery of Salmonella in adult takes about a month, and for children - even longer.


How dangerous salmonella?

Approximately 5% of the gastrointestinal forms of salmonellosis lead to the development of bacteremia - a condition in which bacteria are present in the blood. A small percentage of these patients develop severe complications such salmonellosis as abscesses (including abscess Abscess - why it is so dangerous ulcers?  Abscess - why it is so dangerous ulcers?
   brain), and endocarditis. Overall, approximately 20% of patients who have diagnosed salmonella, require hospitalization, 5% of them develop any complications, and 0.5% among these patients, complications lead to death. Severe consequences of salmonellosis is especially common in children under one year, people over 65 years old and in immunocompromised patients caused by how different diseases and medications. Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella, are also associated with increased risk of serious complications.

It is estimated that 2-15% of cases of salmonellosis in humans leads to the development of complications such as reactive arthritis Arthritis - a variety of forms and complications  Arthritis - a variety of forms and complications
 . The symptoms of this disorder are pain and swelling in the joints, sometimes - an inflammation of the tendon. The most common reactive arthritis Reactive Arthritis: purulent inflammation of the joints  Reactive Arthritis: purulent inflammation of the joints
   It affects joints of the feet, much less - the joints of the hands, fingers, and lower back. In some patients, the disease also results in inflammation of the prostate, cervix or urethra, the eye, and even causes extensive skin rashes.

The symptoms of reactive arthritis occur, on average, 18 days after the first signs of salmonellosis. According to polls, to the doctor complaining of the above symptoms are treated, only about 15% of the total number of patients who develop this complication. In most cases, the disease takes several months later, but sometimes the symptoms of reactive arthritis may persist for several years. This disease is studied rather poorly and cure it is not currently possible; primary goal of treatment for reactive arthritis is to relieve his symptoms.

Finally, severe salmonellosis may lead to severe dehydration, which is extremely hazardous to health. Fortunately, timely hospitalization in most cases allows to avoid it.


Diagnosis of salmonellosis

In most cases, the diagnosis is prescribed a stool How to pass a stool, so as not to spoil it  How to pass a stool, so as not to spoil it
   to salmonellosis. When bacteremia and other complications of Salmonella could be detected in urine and, rarely, in different tissues of the body. Salmonella can also be detected by a blood test, but this method of diagnosis is used relatively infrequently.

Today, as a rule, doctors do a smear on salmonellosis from the anus. The resulting samples microflora on two or three days, are placed in culture medium, after which they were studying microbiologist. Such an analysis on salmonella can not only confirm the presence of an intestinal infection, but also to identify its originator.

If you are taking antibiotics, be sure to tell your doctor before carrying out tests - these drugs can lead to lozhnooritsatelnym results in infected patients.

Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat - Course and complications

April 19, 2009

  • Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat
  • Course and complications

How is

The disease begins with severe pain encircling the upper abdomen. Sometimes, strong attacks of pain preceded by precursors of the disease - a condition of discomfort, short fuzzy abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 , Loose stools. The position on the back of increases in pain. With the onset of necrosis of the pancreatic tissue pain can be reduced due to the fact that the necrosis affected the nerve endings.

Mandatory sign of acute pancreatitis are also nausea, vomiting and bloating. Vomiting can be a painful, persistent, sometimes untamed and never brings relief. Increasing abdominal swelling due to accumulation of gas violates the motor activity of the intestine.

After contact with enzymes in the blood violated its circulation in small blood vessels, stagnation leads to the appearance of small pinpoint hemorrhages on the skin of the navel and buttocks.

The skin of such patients becomes pale, with a bluish tint. Total intoxication enzymes and decomposition products of the pancreas has an impact on the activities of all organs.

 Course and complications | Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat


Acute pancreatitis can be complicated by the formation of abscesses (abscesses, bounded capsule), as well as the transition of inflammation to other organs of the gastrointestinal tract, such as bile duct and gallbladder. In violation of the blood vessel wall can begin acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

In the process of destruction of pancreatic tissue in the blood enter the various materials which can provide complications as a sharp decrease in blood pressure Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?  Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?
   (collapse), renal dysfunction, as well as a variety of other complications of internal organs. It may begin as blood poisoning (septicemia).

 Course and complications | Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat

Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis is a very characteristic features. It confirms the diagnosis by means of laboratory tests. Thus, in the first hours after the onset of the disease in the urine appears high enzyme content pancreatic amylase. With the destruction of pancreatic tissue amounts of amylase, on the contrary, falls, or may be absent altogether. Increasing the number of amylase and other enzymes - lipase in blood.

In the blood of patients with acute pancreatitis show signs of inflammation: a large number of white blood cells White blood cells as the basis of immunity  White blood cells as the basis of immunity
   and accelerated ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate).

To clarify the diagnosis is sometimes carried out studies such as ultrasonography (it allows to identify the complications of the bile ducts), computed tomography, which allows you to determine the degree of damage to the pancreas, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) - X-ray examination with the introduction of contrast medium directly into the bile ducts through a special device (an endoscope) - can detect changes in the pancreatic duct and biliary tract.

 Course and complications | Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat


All patients with suspected acute pancreatitis need to be hospitalized in the surgical ward. Before the arrival of the ambulance such a patient can be helped by applying to the upper abdomen cold - it inhibits the activity of several enzymes of the pancreas. In no case can not eat anything. Emergency doctor is required to introduce such a patient painkillers, antispasmodic (relieves spasms of smooth muscles of internal organs - it promotes the outflow of pancreatic juice from cancer) and try to delete the contents of the stomach through a tube in order to reduce the release of pancreatic juice.

At the hospital, patients with acute pancreatitis administered drugs that inhibit the activity of pancreatic enzymes Diabetes and pancreas - the things you need to know  Diabetes and pancreas - the things you need to know
   (contrycal, trasilol and so on), antispasmodics and anesthetics. The first 4-5 days the patient is on a full hunger, then begin to gradually introduce yogurt.

The earlier the correct diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and have been actively used antispasmodic drugs, the greater the chance that the cancer will not come gangrene.

If necessary, and surgery is performed: decay products are removed pancreas and inflammatory fluid output through a special drainage.

Acute pancreatitis - a serious illness, so it is better not to abuse alcohol and greasy fried food.

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