One of the most common and serious complications of acute pancreatitis is infected pancreatic necrosis. This complication occurs in approximately one third of patients with severe acute pancreatitis.
Infected pancreatic necrosis
When infected pancreatic inflammation leads to disruption of blood flow and the tissue of the pancreas. Without a constant flow of blood cancer tissues begin to die - a process called necrosis.
Necrotic tissue is very susceptible to infections caused by bacteria. If the infection starts, it can rapidly spread to the blood (blood poisoning) and disrupt the work of many agencies. If untreated, infected pancreatic necrosis in most cases, result in death of the patient. This is usually a complication develops within 2-6 weeks after the onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis, and noted increasing abdominal pain and fever. For the treatment of infections injections of antibiotics. It is also necessary to remove dead tissue, otherwise the infection will happen again.
In some cases it is possible to bring dead tissue with a catheter, in others it uses laparoscopic surgery. During such an operation in the skin on the back and make a small incision in a thin flexible tube is introduced, via which the removed fragments of dead tissue.
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It is not always possible. For example, if human obesity, reach the pancreas via the laparoscope may be impossible. In this case, for the removal of necrotic tissue is necessary to make an incision in the abdomen.
The infected pancreatic necrosis - a very serious complication of acute pancreatitis, and even if the care is provided at the highest level, on average, one in five patients die from failure of various organs.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
Another common complication of acute pancreatitis - systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS occurs in approximately one out of ten patients with acute pancreatitis.
When SIRS inflammation, which began in the pancreas spreads to the entire body, which leads to malfunction of one or more organs. SIRS usually develops within the first week after the onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis, in most cases it occurs on the same day that the symptoms appeared.
The symptoms of SIRS may be:
- The rise in body temperature above 38 ° C or fall below 36C;
- Heart rate greater than 90 beats per minute;
- Unusually often breath - more than 20 breaths per minute.
Currently, there are no methods of treatment of SIRS, so therapy is to maintain the body functions as inflammatory processes not cease. The prognosis depends on how many agencies will no longer work. The more the authorities deny the result of SIRS, the higher the probability of death of the patient.
Pseudocyst - also one of the common complications of acute pancreatitis. They are "baggies" with the liquid inside, which are formed on the surface of the pancreas
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. Mean pseudocyst formed in one of the twenty patients with acute pancreatitis (both types).
Pseudocysts usually appear within four weeks after the onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis. In many cases, they do not cause symptoms, and they are found only in computer tomography. However, some people pseudocyst can cause the following symptoms:
- Stomach upset;
- Dull pain in the abdomen.
If pseudocysts and do not cause any symptoms, the patient does not require additional treatment, usually because they are in themselves. Treatment may be recommended, if there are symptoms or if larger than 6 cm pseudocyst. Large pseudocyst can rupture, sometimes causing internal bleeding or infection.
If necessary, pseudocyst treated by draining liquid from their cavity. This can be done by introducing a long needle through the skin into pseudocyst, or with an endoscope. In the latter case, the endoscope is introduced through a patient's throat.
Prevention of acute pancreatitis
The main risk factors for the development of acute pancreatitis are alcohol abuse and gallstones. With lifestyle changes can reduce the impact of these factors.
Limiting alcohol consumption may help prevent damage to the pancreas and reduce the likelihood of acute pancreatitis. In addition, it reduces the risk of developing other serious diseases, including cancer, liver
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Men are not recommended to use more than three or four units of alcohol a day and women - more than two or three units. A unit of alcohol is considered to be about 0.5 liters of lager, a small glass of wine or 25 ml of vodka.
The most effective way to prevent the formation of gallstones - a healthy diet that contains little fat and a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables (at least five servings a day). Your diet should also include grains - such as whole wheat bread, oatmeal and brown rice. Such a diet helps to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the bile.
Excess weight also helps to increase the level of cholesterol in the bile, and increases the probability of the formation of gallstones. To avoid this, maintain a healthy weight with the help of a balanced diet and regular exercise. Most people need at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week. Examples of such loads are brisk walking, cycling and water aerobics
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. If you really have not engaged in sports, consult your doctor before starting training.