Salmonellosis - features of the disease

June 1, 2014

  • Salmonellosis - features of the disease
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  • Treatment

 The name of the disease comes from the name Salmonella genus of bacteria - Salmonella, the representatives of which cause intestinal and other infections in humans and some other animals. The name of the bacteria obtained by the American vet Daniel Elmer Salmon, who in 1885 first revealed the strain of Salmonella - Salmonella choleraesuis, causing cholera Cholera: the main thing - to prevent dehydration  Cholera: the main thing - to prevent dehydration
   in pigs.

Currently it is known two types of salmonella, six subspecies, and a large number (more than two thousand) serotypes. The most common cause of infection in humans are the following types of salmonella:

Salmonella Enteritidis - the most common causative agent of salmonellosis transmitted to humans through food - especially meat birds. S. Enteritidis infects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of birds, and is transmitted from bird to bird in several ways, mainly - by the faeces. When the bird kill, bacteria from the digestive tract enter the meat. In addition, they are found in the ovaries and can therefore penetrate the egg. Also, there are cases where this species of Salmonella spread through alfalfa sprouts, pine nuts and beef.

Salmonella Typhimurium can be transmitted through the poultry, beef, pork, melon, peanut oil, tomato. It can also be carriers of urchins and some species of frogs. In recent years, the source of the bacteria most often become ground beef. Since S. Typhimurium resistant to many antibiotics Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?  Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
 To protect it from the animal and the end user is very difficult. Unlike many other serotypes of Salmonella, S. Typhimurium, apparently can dwell in the lymphatic system of animals. Studies on the serotype of Salmonella, are ongoing.

Salmonella Newport - the third most common serotype of Salmonella infections associated with eating. Carriers of this bacterium most often are the products of turkey. As S. Typhimurium, this species of Salmonella is resistant to many types of antibiotics. Since it is already connected several large outbreaks of salmonellosis. For example, in 2012 in the United States it led to the infection of 250 people, and the death of three infected.

Salmonella Javiana. It is believed that most carriers of this type are Salmonella amphibians. To a man, they in most cases fall through products such as mozzarella, watermelon, chicken and tomatoes.

Salmonella Heidelberg - a type of salmonella, which is most often spread through poultry and eggs.

All over the world are diagnosed each year tens of millions of cases of salmonellosis. Experts believe that the salmonella detected in only a small number of people infected with salmonella Salmonella: unknown facts  Salmonella: unknown facts
 . An estimated one diagnosed case may account for 38.6 cases of infection by Salmonella or other types. For many people, salmonellosis asymptomatic or causes only mild illness, with which the man does not always go to the doctor.

Speaking of Salmonella infection, it is worth mentioning the bacterium Salmonella Typhi - the type of salmonella that causes typhoid fever, or typhoid fever. This disease does not relate to the classification of all salmonella, but its pathogens can also be transmitted through food water, and in the early stages of infection they cause the same symptoms as the common salmonella. In developed countries infection caused by S. Typhi, they occur only rarely, but in other regions, they are still an issue. Every year in the world from 12 to 33 million people become ill with typhoid. In third world countries is fairly high mortality rate among patients with this disease, especially infectious agents are strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Next, we will talk mainly about netifoidnom salmonellosis that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans.


How is salmonella

The most common causes of salmonellosis - a food - especially of animal origin. According to one large study, 87% of confirmed cases were caused by salmonella bacteria spread through food; 10% of Salmonella spread from person to person (via faeces), and in 3% of cases - from animals to humans.

Especially frequently transmitted salmonella in eggs, beef products, whole milk and dairy products, pork, fruits and vegetables. Also, there are cases where agents of salmonellosis transmitted through marijuana.

In many cases the source of infection are raw eggs and a variety of dishes from them, for example, pouring dressings, tiramisu, omelets from poorly roasted eggs, toast in French, and so on. During the analysis of 371 cases of more or less large outbreaks of salmonellosis researchers found that eggs that are used in one form or another, have caused 80% of all outbreaks. Of the remaining 20% ​​of the cases (total 73 cases), 23% of salmonellosis outbreaks have been associated with the use of chicken or turkey, 11% - with the consumption of beef. Much less often become a source of infection shrimp, pork, various vegetables, cheese.

Salmonella can live inside the eggs and their shell. The latter is due to the fact that a hen lays eggs through the same hole through which it defecates, so the egg is highly recommended before using wash. Moreover, as already mentioned, Salmonella lives in the reproductive tract of hens, while they themselves are not ill with salmonellosis.

In vegetables, fruits and beans Salmonella usually gets together with particles of feces of animals that live in the body, these bacteria. Since 1996, there were at least 30 outbreaks of salmonella, which became a source of fresh sprouts of different plants (alfalfa, wheat, and so on). Although such sprouts are very useful, experts recommend to use them with extreme caution, and people with weakened immune systems Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
   generally refrain from them. The reason for this is that the seeds germinate in a warm and humid environment that is ideal for reproduction of Salmonella and E. coli and other bacteria.

Tablets Duspatalin - treatment of diseases of the intestine

February 10th, 2013

 Tablets Duspatalin
 Duspatalin - a modern, effective antispasmodic drug. Duspatalin tablets today can rarely be found in pharmacies - it replaces a more modern formulation of the drug - a long-acting capsule. However, tablets and Duspatalin used to treat digestive diseases.

 Tablets Duspatalin - treatment of diseases of the intestine

What are the characteristics of the dosage form Duspatalin tablets

Duspatalin tablets (as well as in capsules) produces international pharmaceutical company Abbott. From the capsules are characterized in that the tablets contain a lower dose of the active drug substance mebeverina (135 mg versus 200 mg tablets in capsules). Also, tablets containing other excipients: lactose monohydrate, potato starch, povidone, talc, magnesium stearate. The composition of the shell tablets include talc, sucrose, gelatin, gum acacia, carnauba wax - the shell allows you to take the tablets without breaking the aggressive acidic environment of the stomach and absorbed in the duodenum.

After absorption in the intestine Duspatalin enters the liver, where it is decomposed into metabolites (products of metabolism). It is an active metabolites have pharmacological activity - spasms and inhibit increased locomotor activity of smooth muscles of internal organs, especially the digestive system.

Displayed Duspatalin tablets urine faster than in capsules therefore not take two tablets (capsules) and three times a day. Duspatalin tablets has more contraindications for use and side-effects than the dosage form in capsules depot.

 Tablets Duspatalin - treatment of diseases of the intestine

Which diseases apply Duspatalin tablets

Tablets Duspatalin used for cramps and pains in the digestive system. Since the tablets are less long time, they generally have been used in the treatment of intestinal colic occurring in various diseases of the intestine. This could be irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a disease in which disturbed nervous regulation of activity of the digestive system, resulting in there flatulence, constant pain during bowel. The causes of IBS are stress, irregular eating, some neuro-psychiatric diseases Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?  Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?

Similar symptoms occur against the background of intestinal dysbiosis Intestinal dysbiosis - how dangerous it is?  Intestinal dysbiosis - how dangerous it is?
 That develops in violation of dynamic equilibrium between the normal and the pathogenic microflora. Since the normal microflora is involved in the process of digestion at dysbacteriosis, this process is disrupted, resulting in increased gas production, intoxication and intestinal cramps.

To distinguish IBS from dysbiosis, and also to exclude organic (in violation of the structure of the body) bowel disease, the patient is completely examined.

Duspatalin help as IBS, and at a dysbacteriosis - it removes spasms of smooth muscles of the intestine and the associated pain and not completely suppress locomotor activity (normal peristalsis) of the intestine.

Applied Duspatalin and chronic colitis - in this case, the pain and spasms of smooth muscles associated with inflammation of the intestinal wall. Spasmolysis improves blood circulation in the intestinal wall, which in turn will help to reduce inflammation.

Take Duspatalin tablets on a tablet before meals three times a day. Duration of treatment is determined by a physician and depends on the patient's condition.

 Tablets Duspatalin - treatment of diseases of the intestine

Contraindications and side effects

Tablets Duspatalin contraindicated if you are hypersensitive their components by the body of the patient, at the age of 18 years (not conducted clinical trials of the drug in children), and during breast Breastfeeding - a personal choice  Breastfeeding - a personal choice
   feeding (reliable information on the allocation Duspatalin mother's milk is not). Furthermore, unlike long-acting capsules, tablets Duspatalin not recommended during pregnancy.

Because of the side effects of pills Duspatalin known nausea, diarrhea or constipation (sometimes alternating), dizziness and headache. It is known as allergic reactions which occur mainly in the form of various itchy.

Since Duspatalin pills can cause side effects such as dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
 During treatment should refrain from driving vehicles and Occupation potentially hazardous activities that require high concentration and coordination of movements.

Duspatalin tablets used as an antispasmodic primarily for diseases of the intestines.

Galina Romanenko

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