- Salmonellosis - features of the disease
- As shown
The name of the disease comes from the name Salmonella genus of bacteria - Salmonella, the representatives of which cause intestinal and other infections in humans and some other animals. The name of the bacteria obtained by the American vet Daniel Elmer Salmon, who in 1885 first revealed the strain of Salmonella - Salmonella choleraesuis, causing cholera
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Currently it is known two types of salmonella, six subspecies, and a large number (more than two thousand) serotypes. The most common cause of infection in humans are the following types of salmonella:
Salmonella Enteritidis - the most common causative agent of salmonellosis transmitted to humans through food - especially meat birds. S. Enteritidis infects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of birds, and is transmitted from bird to bird in several ways, mainly - by the faeces. When the bird kill, bacteria from the digestive tract enter the meat. In addition, they are found in the ovaries and can therefore penetrate the egg. Also, there are cases where this species of Salmonella spread through alfalfa sprouts, pine nuts and beef.
Salmonella Typhimurium can be transmitted through the poultry, beef, pork, melon, peanut oil, tomato. It can also be carriers of urchins and some species of frogs. In recent years, the source of the bacteria most often become ground beef. Since S. Typhimurium resistant to many antibiotics
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To protect it from the animal and the end user is very difficult. Unlike many other serotypes of Salmonella, S. Typhimurium, apparently can dwell in the lymphatic system of animals. Studies on the serotype of Salmonella, are ongoing.
Salmonella Newport - the third most common serotype of Salmonella infections associated with eating. Carriers of this bacterium most often are the products of turkey. As S. Typhimurium, this species of Salmonella is resistant to many types of antibiotics. Since it is already connected several large outbreaks of salmonellosis. For example, in 2012 in the United States it led to the infection of 250 people, and the death of three infected.
Salmonella Javiana. It is believed that most carriers of this type are Salmonella amphibians. To a man, they in most cases fall through products such as mozzarella, watermelon, chicken and tomatoes.
Salmonella Heidelberg - a type of salmonella, which is most often spread through poultry and eggs.
All over the world are diagnosed each year tens of millions of cases of salmonellosis. Experts believe that the salmonella detected in only a small number of people infected with salmonella
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. An estimated one diagnosed case may account for 38.6 cases of infection by Salmonella or other types. For many people, salmonellosis asymptomatic or causes only mild illness, with which the man does not always go to the doctor.
Speaking of Salmonella infection, it is worth mentioning the bacterium Salmonella Typhi - the type of salmonella that causes typhoid fever, or typhoid fever. This disease does not relate to the classification of all salmonella, but its pathogens can also be transmitted through food water, and in the early stages of infection they cause the same symptoms as the common salmonella. In developed countries infection caused by S. Typhi, they occur only rarely, but in other regions, they are still an issue. Every year in the world from 12 to 33 million people become ill with typhoid. In third world countries is fairly high mortality rate among patients with this disease, especially infectious agents are strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Next, we will talk mainly about netifoidnom salmonellosis that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans.
How is salmonella
The most common causes of salmonellosis - a food - especially of animal origin. According to one large study, 87% of confirmed cases were caused by salmonella bacteria spread through food; 10% of Salmonella spread from person to person (via faeces), and in 3% of cases - from animals to humans.
Especially frequently transmitted salmonella in eggs, beef products, whole milk and dairy products, pork, fruits and vegetables. Also, there are cases where agents of salmonellosis transmitted through marijuana.
In many cases the source of infection are raw eggs and a variety of dishes from them, for example, pouring dressings, tiramisu, omelets from poorly roasted eggs, toast in French, and so on. During the analysis of 371 cases of more or less large outbreaks of salmonellosis researchers found that eggs that are used in one form or another, have caused 80% of all outbreaks. Of the remaining 20% of the cases (total 73 cases), 23% of salmonellosis outbreaks have been associated with the use of chicken or turkey, 11% - with the consumption of beef. Much less often become a source of infection shrimp, pork, various vegetables, cheese.
Salmonella can live inside the eggs and their shell. The latter is due to the fact that a hen lays eggs through the same hole through which it defecates, so the egg is highly recommended before using wash. Moreover, as already mentioned, Salmonella lives in the reproductive tract of hens, while they themselves are not ill with salmonellosis.
In vegetables, fruits and beans Salmonella usually gets together with particles of feces of animals that live in the body, these bacteria. Since 1996, there were at least 30 outbreaks of salmonella, which became a source of fresh sprouts of different plants (alfalfa, wheat, and so on). Although such sprouts are very useful, experts recommend to use them with extreme caution, and people with weakened immune systems
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generally refrain from them. The reason for this is that the seeds germinate in a warm and humid environment that is ideal for reproduction of Salmonella and E. coli and other bacteria.