Ulcerative colitis: Complications after treatment
November 22, 2011
- Ulcerative colitis: Complications after treatment
- Side effects of the treatment
Ulcerative colitis - a chronic inflammation of the colon. The colon - is part of the digestive system that stores waste from the body. At the end of the colon is the rectum adjacent to the anus. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease can last for years and decades. They occur with equal frequency in both men and women. They usually appear after age 30, but can even begin in childhood and persist throughout life.
What causes ulcerative colitis?
The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not installed. To date there is no evidence which would confirm that it is caused by an infection and / or is contagious.
He may occur because of an abnormal immune system activity
The immune system - how it works?
in the intestine. Important components of the immune system are the immune cells and proteins that these cells produce. These cells and proteins protect the body from harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. Activation of the immune system causes inflammation in the tissues, which has accelerated (inflammation really is an important defense mechanism of the immune system). Normally, the immune system is activated only when the organism invades the harmful and potentially dangerous microorganisms. In patients with ulcerative colitis, the immune system is activated regularly without external causes. Repeated activation of the immune system causes chronic inflammation and ulceration. Exposure to abnormal activation of the immune system is inherited. Therefore, the likelihood of developing this disease is highest among those whose close relatives were sick or ill with ulcerative colitis.
A recent study found 30 genes that may increase susceptibility to ulcerative colitis, including immunoglobulin receptors CGR2A, 5p15, 2p16, ORMDL3, ECM1 and regions of chromosome 1p36, 12q15, 7q22, 22q13 and IL23R. It is unclear how these findings can be used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, but this information may help to understand the origin of the disease, and therefore, perhaps, find a cure for him.
If a patient has symptoms listed above, your doctor may suspect ulcerative colitis, however, to make an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination.
- A patient taking a stool sample, which is tested for the presence of infections and parasites, as this may have symptoms very similar to the symptoms of ulcerative colitis.
- Blood tests may show anemia, elevated white blood cell or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Elevated levels of white blood cell counts and ESR can indicate inflammation of the colon. Furthermore, by analyzing blood check renal function and liver iron content is measured in the blood, and examining blood for the presence of C-reactive protein.
- To confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct a colonoscopy
Preparing and conducting a colonoscopy: the risks and alternatives
- Examination of the rectum using a probe. This method allows you to determine how widely the disease and, if necessary, a biopsy - to take tissue samples for analysis.
- Barium enema is also used to diagnose ulcerative colitis. With the help of an enema into the rectum, barium is introduced - radiopaque substance, whereby the resulting picture will be much easier to study. However, barium enema - not as an accurate method of diagnosis, as a direct visualization. If possible, preference is given to colonoscopy.
- In some cases, a capsule endoscopy
Endoscopy - not only diagnosis but also treatment procedure
, Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Such methods are particularly useful for detecting pathologies of the small intestine.
Patients with ulcerative colitis struck only the rectum (proctitis) or the end of the left colon (proctosigmoiditis), transferred the disease is fairly easy
. Usually it is quite a short treatment with oral and / or rectal medications
. Serious complications such patients are rare
. A more extensive pathological processes bleeding inflamed intestinal sections can cause anemia, resulting in the need of treatment with iron preparations, and in some cases - blood transfusion
. In rare cases - with very severe inflammation - colon can greatly expand
. This condition is called toxic megacolon and accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature, severe abdominal pain, dehydration and exhaustion
. If medications do not help the patient as quickly as possible, to prevent rupture of the colon requires surgery
Colon cancer - another side effect of ulcerative colitis. The risk of cancer increases particularly in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis for 8-10 years. However, in patients with praktitom cancer risk is not much different from this figure for the average population. A patient with active pankolitom this risk is higher than in the population as a whole. The risk increases in patients with a family history of cancer.
In ulcerative colitis, there are many other complications:
- In 10% of patients with ulcerative colitis, the inflammation of the joints
Inflammation of the joints - how to relieve the pain?
- Back pain due to arthritis sacroiliac joints
- Ankylosing spondylitis - a type of arthritis that affects the vertebral joints
- Diseases of the liver and bile ducts
- The increased likelihood of blood clots, especially when the disease is in an active phase
Espumizan - rapid release of gas
May 27, 2010
- Espumizan - rapid release of gas
Espumizan used to treat indigestion, heartburn, bloating and other problems related to digestion. It affects only the already existing gastric juice in the stomach and can prevent or limit its output. It can be taken alone or in combination with drugs that reduce the production of gastric juice - such as H2 blockers histamine receptors (cimetidine), and proton pump inhibitors (opemprazol).
How to take Espumizan
Espumizan be taken after a meal and, if necessary, before bedtime
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. Follow the directions on the package or the doctor's instructions. If you are unsure about anything relating to administration of the drug, consult your doctor. To wash down the capsule should be full glass of water (about 250 ml).
Drugs such as digoxin, dietary supplements
Food additives - basic classification
Containing iron, tetracycline antibiotics and quinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, can impede the absorption of Espumizan. If you are taking any medications, consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking Espumizan.
If after one week of receiving Espumizan symptoms are aggravated and / or you think that you have a serious illness, as soon as possible pass a medical examination.
Espumizan daily intake for two weeks or more may cause offense, which would require special treatment.
- Acid reflux (used to relieve its symptoms)
- Gastric ulcer, caused by exposure to stomach acid
- Disorders associated with excessive production of gastric juice
- A hiatal hernia, accompanied by inflammation of the esophagus caused by acid reflux
- Increased numbers of mast cells
- Benign tumors of the glands that produce hormones
The most common side effects are nausea Espumizan, constipation, diarrhea, and headache. If these symptoms persist for a long time, and / or amplified, tell your doctor. Regular exercise and drinking plenty of fluids can help reduce the likelihood of constipation. However, more often while taking Espumizan diarrhea develops.
Some ingredients Espumizan possess the ability to bind phosphate - is very important for the normal functioning of the body's chemical elements. This can lead to reduced levels of phosphates, particularly during chronic administration of the drug. Call a doctor if the following symptoms of low phosphate levels in the body: lack of appetite, unusual, unfounded fatigue and muscle weakness.
When during the reception Espumizan following symptoms should also consult a doctor immediately: dizziness, fainting, black stools, shallow breathing difficulty, slow and / or irregular heart beat, changes in level of consciousness, pain when urinating, abdominal pain
Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
, Vomit, consistency similar to freshly ground coffee.
Espumizan rarely cause severe allergic reactions, but the appearance of such symptoms as swelling of the face, tongue and throat, severe dizziness, shortness of breath, fainting, you should immediately seek medical help.
If you are allergic to aluminum hydroxide, magnesium and / or simethicone, and if you have ever had an allergic reaction to any medication, be sure to tell your doctor before taking Espumizan. Do not start taking Espumizan without prior consultation with a specialist if you have kidney disease (including kidney stones
Kidney stones: identify and treat
, Severe dehydration, and / or if you are abusing alcohol.