It causes inflammation of the appendages - a pathogen and decreased immunity. The combination of these two factors, and promotes development of infectious and inflammatory processes in the uterine appendages. As infectious agents, and moments that cause decreased immunity, can be different, and this is reflected in the features of the disease.
The two main causes of inflammation of the appendages
Inflammation of the uterus (adnexitis or salpingo-ophoritis) can be caused by many reasons. But on closer examination all of them can be divided into two parts: the infectious agents and decreased immunity
Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
Some infectious agents are able to penetrate into the internal reproductive organs and without reducing the immunity they themselves over time, cause a decrease in immunity. But the majority of infectious agents to penetrate the low immunity of the uterus is still required.
The first reason - Infection
The infection causes inflammation of the uterus, can be specific and nonspecific. They distinguish between these two types of agents of the fact that some of them (specific) cause characteristic only for them the inflammatory response of tissues, while the latter (non-specific) usually cause an inflammatory response typical of many pathogens.
Specific pathogens are Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed
All infections, sexually transmitted infections and others. For non-specific - staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, Proteus, and so on, most of all - they are representatives of conditionally pathogenic microflora, constantly live on the mucous membranes of the external genitalia of women.
Starting inflammatory process in the majority of cases in women vulva then ascending infection (through the cervical canal and uterine cavity) enters the uterine appendages. The infection can get into the appendages and through the blood and lymph systems, both from the external genitalia, and other foci of infection, even remotely (eg, tuberculosis). Nearby sources of infection may be the gut (eg, appendicitis) and urinary tract (cystitis).
In order to get into the internal reproductive organs of women, which normally does not contain any of the microflora, the infectious agent is usually required an additional condition - reduced immunity. It is easier to penetrate into the internal reproductive organs is given the specific pathogens infections - they are more aggressive and tend to spread.
The most urgent problem today is an infection caused by pathogens developing intracellularly (chlamydia, mycoplasma
Mycoplasma - the smallest microbe
, Ureaplasma), since they are difficult to treat and promote the reduction of immunity. Decrease in immunity provides access conditionally pathogenic microflora, resulting in a developed mixed infections that are very difficult to treat.
The second reason - low immunity
Infection can circulate for years in the vulva of women, without causing inflammation of the uterus
Inflammation of the uterus - is one of the most common gynecological diseases
If a woman has a good immune system. But as soon as he drops (usually temporary, short decline under the influence of some factors), infectious agents can immediately enter in the internal genitals.
Common factors that cause a temporary decrease in immunity include hypothermia (adnexitis after colds - the most common phenomenon), heavy physical and psychological stress, stress, common acute and chronic diseases.
Of great importance is violating the integrity of the genital mucosa, promoting the penetration of the infection. Injury mucosa often occurs during abortions, gynecological operations and manipulations, as well as during heavy labor.
A common cause of infection is the intrauterine contraception. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) irritate the mucous membrane of the uterus, causing her inflammatory process that prevents pregnancy. But in order to establish the Navy must first fully examined the woman and make sure she does not have the infection. Otherwise, the spread of infection in the uterus and its appendages guaranteed.
Yet the leader among the pathogens that cause inflammation of the uterus are the causative agents of sexually transmitted infections - gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and others. As a rule, it is a very aggressive infection, which is not always even, additional conditions for the spread. Therefore, the main prevention adnexitises - is the observance of sexual health.
- inflammation of the appendages