Long periods: possible evidence of pathology

August 24, 2012

 long periods
 One of the indicators of women's health, and the whole body is a menstrual cycle. Any deviation from the norm (lengthening or shortening of the cycle, painful, heavy or scanty menstruation) indicates the presence of any disease. Often, the menstrual cycle is manifested in the form of a long-term period. In this case, it is not necessary to delay the visit to the doctor, because the earlier run diagnostics, and set the cause of violations, the more effective will be the appropriate treatment. Long periods may occur at any age period women, but usually, the peak of this pathology have to reproductive age. About 30% of women suffer from the so-called protracted menstruation.

 Long periods: possible evidence of pathology

Characteristics of the menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle - is the regular changes that occur in a woman's body and directed at the possibility of fertilization. The menstrual cycle - a process that is fully subject to the hormones produced by the body. Duration of the menstrual cycle is different, it is the average from 21 days to 35 (ideally 28). Each cycle ends with the rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium, ie menstruation. A normal menstrual period lasts from three to seven days. The total blood loss for the entire period of menstruation should not exceed 150 ml.

 Long periods: possible evidence of pathology

Menorrhagia - long periods

Long-term monthly, or menorrhagia - a condition characterized by heavy and long menstrual periods. About menorrhagia said last month when more than seven days, and every hour you need to change the pad or tampon. Sometimes there gipermenorragiya or very massive and prolonged bleeding when one hour changes several pads.

 Long periods: possible evidence of pathology


The causes of long-term monthly diverse. They can be divided into several groups:

Organic diseases of the female reproductive organs:

  • uterine fibroids;
  • hyperplasia and endometrial polyps;
  • chronic endometritis;
  • adenomyosis (endometriosis of the uterus);
  • inflammation of the appendages;
  • uterine cancer;
  • ovarian tumors;
  • cervical pathology (erosion, cancer).

Violation of the blood coagulation system:

  • thrombocytopenia;
  • autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus);
  • leukemia;
  • von Willebrand's disease.

The pathology of the liver:

  • decrease in production of clotting factors;
  • the metabolism of estrogen;
  • violation of developing liver enzymes.

Iatrogenic (medical) reasons:

  • hormonal drugs (contraceptives and others);
  • reception non-hormonal medications (anticoagulants);
  • the presence of an intrauterine device.

Also causes prolonged menstruation may be: acute infectious diseases (acute respiratory infections, flu), bad habits, climate change and obesity.

 Long periods: possible evidence of pathology

The clinical picture of long-term monthly

The clinical picture depends on the cause of menorrhagia Menorrhagia (menorrhagia) - excessive blood loss  Menorrhagia (menorrhagia) - excessive blood loss
 . Diagnosis begins with anamnesis. Then, a gynecological examination. In the presence of fibroids or uterine cancer is determined by the increased heavy or softened uterus, often with individual nodes. Ovarian masses were palpable in the iliac region, they can be mobile or fixed, painful or not. On examination, the cervix is ​​revealed in the mirrors her pathological changes. The methods of the survey include:

  • Ultrasound uterus and appendages (detection of tumors and polyps);
  • hysteroscopy (visual inspection of the special apparatus of the uterus);
  • gisterosalpingogrfiya (identification of obstruction of pipes as a result of chronic adnexitis);
  • therapeutic and diagnostic curettage Curettage - how dangerous it is?  Curettage - how dangerous it is?
  • examination of the thyroid gland;
  • study hormone levels;
  • coagulation (clotting definition);
  • colposcopy Colposcopy - how to prepare it properly?  Colposcopy - how to prepare it properly?
   (examination of the cervix colposcope).

 Long periods: possible evidence of pathology


Treatment of menorrhagia varies, depending on the cause. For example, during long periods, associated with hormonal drugs, adjusted basic treatment or produce replacement contraceptives. Long menstruation, arising on a background of wearing an intrauterine device, require its removal. Tumors of the ovary and uterus, and often treated surgically. When polyps endometrial hyperplasia and therapeutic hysteroscopy is performed (removal of polyps or overgrown endometrium), or scraping Scraping - heavy and unsafe procedure  Scraping - heavy and unsafe procedure
   the uterine cavity.

Anna Sozinova

Article Tags:
  • menstrual irregularities

Yellow body - what does it need?

August 31, 2011

 yellow body
 Few women know what a yellow body, how it is produced and what is needed in the body. Especially frightening statements of doctors, an ultrasound revealed that the corpus luteum cyst. Not all doctors can explain such a diagnosis, or they just do not have time for this. But, nevertheless, the corpus luteum plays an important role in the functioning of the female body, because it depends on him next period, and in the case of pregnancy, its preservation and development.


Yellow body - what is it?

The corpus luteum (corpus luteum) - this is a temporary endocrine gland in a woman's body, which is formed after ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?  Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
   and produces the hormone progesterone. In the process of formation, functioning and development of return (regression) of the corpus luteum play the role of the pituitary gland, the ovaries, the immune system and growth factors. From a physiological point of view, the main function of the yellow body is to synthesize progesterone, which is essential for prolonging the pregnancy. In addition, the corpus luteum in small quantities forms estradiol and androgens (male sex hormones). His name is obliged to yellow body content (lutein), which has a yellow color.


The formation of the corpus luteum

The corpus luteum is formed in the second phase (secretion) of the menstrual cycle (at twenty-eight menstrual cycle around the twelfth - sixteenth day). After the end of the follicular phase during which the maturation of the dominant (main) of the follicle, it is broken to release a mature egg. The egg falls into the abdominal weed, I then moved into the fallopian tube, where it is meeting with the sperm and its fertilization. Then the fertilized egg enters the uterus, which is implanted.

Since the rupture of the dominant follicle and exit from the egg in its place begins to form the corpus luteum (the so-called corpus luteum of menstruation). If fertilization has occurred, the corpus luteum regresses gradually and after about fourteen - sixteen days after the incident the next menstruation ovulation occurs, ie rejection of the swollen layer of the endometrium prepared for implantation. After the degeneration of the corpus luteum in its place formed scar site, which is called a whitish body (corpus albicans). Later whitish body disappears.

In the event of successful fertilization under the action of the hormone human chorionic activity of the corpus luteum is maintained for ten - twelve weeks, until the placenta is formed, to produce its own progesterone. After implantation of a fertilized egg yellow body is called "corpus luteum of pregnancy."


Stages of development of the corpus luteum

The process of formation and development of the corpus luteum takes place in four stages:

  • First stage

This proliferation stage, during which the cells are ruptured follicle begin to actively divide and multiply. The first stage begins immediately after the release of the egg.

  • The second stage

This is the stage of vascularization (angiogenesis). In this period, blood vessels begin to grow into the growing epithelial cells. It is believed that the corpus luteum has the highest blood flow in the body. Sometimes ingrowth of blood vessels leading to bleeding and the development of such diseases as ovarian apoplexy Ovarian apoplexy - that require immediate help  Ovarian apoplexy - that require immediate help
 . Good blood flow to the corpus luteum is necessary for the intensive production of progesterone.

  • Third stage

This stage of flowering yellow body when hormonal activity is at its peak. It starts from the time of production of progesterone and lasts ten twelve days (if fertilization has not occurred). Yellow body reaches a rate of almost two centimeters, and is converted into a temporary endocrine gland. That is, there is a transformation of the follicle estrogen Estrogen - the key to bone health  Estrogen - the key to bone health
 secreting organ, which is regulated by FSH in progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology  Progesterone - norm and pathology
 -sinteziruyuschy Authority (adjustable luteinizing hormone).

In the heyday of the corpus luteum stage protrudes above the surface of the ovary and becomes a purple color.

  • Fourth Stage

The fourth stage or step regression (reverse development) occurs if fertilization has not occurred. Ends stage regression menstruation. At this stage begins degenerative changes in the cells, they are reduced between the connective tissue begins to grow, forming hyaline education (whitish body).

Anna Sozinova

Article Tags:
  • yellow body