- Pyelonephritis - kidney disease
Causative agents of pyelonephritis is most often E. coli, Staphylococcus, Proteus and other pathogens. Often there is a mixed flora. Hearth, from which infection through the blood and lymph vessels can be entered in the kidney are any inflammatory diseases, such as chronic tonsillitis
Chronic tonsillitis - inflammation of the tonsils
Another equally important reason is the presence of pyelonephritis in the kidney and urinary tract changes, contributing to the stagnation of urine which favors the development of infections. These changes can be acute obstruction of the urinary tract caused by a stone or tumor, the opposite throwing urine in different parts of the ureter and kidney (reflux).
Of great importance is the general weakening of the body and lowered immunity caused by hypothermia, various diseases of internal organs, lack of vitamins.
Signs of acute pyelonephritis
Usually, pyelonephritis starts with sudden fever, chills, muscle aches and joint pain, headache, nausea, vomiting. After several hours, the temperature is usually fever sharply reduced and there is profuse sweating, and the next day (often at the same time) rises again sharply.
In the lumbar region there is pain and muscle tension. The pains are aggravated by impaired patency of the urinary tract, given in the crotch and thigh. There may be a painful frequent urination.
But there is also a moderate course of acute pyelonephritis, with all of the above events are mild.
Chronic pyelonephritis is found predominantly in young and middle age, women are 2-3 times more often than men. The disease is considered chronic if the signs are held for more than three months. If the proceeds initially chronic pyelonephritis, its symptoms may not be noticed.
Typically, patients complain of weakness, fatigue, malaise, mild pain in the lumbar region, low-grade fever, recurrent frequent painful urination. The face of such patients are usually pale, slightly puffy.
The disease is prolonged, with relapses and remissions (possibly long-term).
Acute pyelonephritis can be complicated by suppurative process - kidney abscess or carbuncle, that manifest deterioration of the patient, sharp changes in temperature. Acute pyelonephritis may also be complicated by urosepsis (blood poisoning) and bacterial shock due to exposure to poison bacteria on the cardiovascular system (sudden pallor, cold sweat, drop in blood pressure and loss of consciousness).
Chronic pyelonephritis may be complicated by inflammation of the surrounding kidney fat (paranephritis), chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure - what to do and how to be?
When the kidneys can not cope with their work for the removal of toxic substances from the body.
To confirm the diagnosis of pyelonephritis conducted laboratory tests of blood and urine, as well as X-ray and ultrasound.
In general, the analysis of blood shows signs of inflammation: ESR and accelerated increase in the number of white blood cells (the defense against infection), especially increasing the number of granular white blood cells (leukocyte formula shift to the left) that leads directly to the bacteria-fighting invaders.
Required studies are being conducted to detect violations of kidney function (urea, creatinine
Creatinine - will talk about the work of the kidneys
In general, the analysis of urine revealed a large number of white blood cells (pus), and bacteria. In order to know how to treat this patient, the urine culture is carried out on nutrient medium for the identification of pathogen and defining its sensitivity to various antibacterial drugs.
When the X-ray and ultrasound revealed various violations of the outflow of urine.
Patients with acute pyelonephritis should be treated only in a hospital. Held immunostimulatory and antibiotic therapy, removal of toxins from the body. When complications as abscesses, as well as kidney stones
Kidney stones: identify and treat
, Perepyatstvuyuschih outflow of urine, operations are carried out.
Chronic pyelonephritis should be treated in a comprehensive and long-term. Eliminates the causes of the violation of the outflow of urine or renal blood flow - usually by surgery. Antibiotic treatment is conducted after determining the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics. ALWAYS restorative treatment and improve immunity.