Kidney stones: identify and treat
April 22, 2014
- Kidney stones: identify and treat
- Symptoms of the disease
- Why are formed
Kidney stones - a small, solid deposits that form in the kidneys. They consist of mineral salts and acids. Kidney stones can cause severe pain, but they usually do not cause serious damage.
Often kidney stones cause no symptoms until not begin to move until the ureter. With this movement can be associated the following symptoms:
- Severe pain in the side or in the back, below the ribs;
- Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin;
- Pain during urination;
- Pink, red or brown urine;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Strong and frequent urination;
- Fever and chills - the presence of infection.
Call an ambulance if the pain becomes so severe that you can not safely remain in the same position, if the pain is accompanied by vomiting and / or fat and chills.
Typically, kidney stones are formed as a result of several factors. Their formation begins when the balance is disturbed components of urine - fluid, acids and various minerals. In this case, urine may contain more substances forming crystals such as calcium, and uric acid than can dissolve the liquid existing therein. At the same time, urine may lack substances which do not normally give crystals attach to each other and form stones. All this creates the conditions in which it is very likely the formation of stones.
Types of kidney stones
There are the following types of kidney stones:
- Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are formed of calcium oxalate. Many oxalate found in some fruits and vegetables as well as nuts and chocolate. The liver also produces oxalate. Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal surgery and some metabolic disorders may contribute to increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine. Calcium stones can also consist of calcium phosphate.
- Struvite stones are formed in response to infection, such as urinary tract infection. Struvite stones grow rapidly and can reach large sizes.
- Urate stones - stones from uric acid salts formed as a result of dehydration, consuming large amounts of protein, or gout
Gout - the "disease of kings"
. Some genetic factors and disorders associated with hematopoietic tissues may predispose to the formation of uric acid stones.
- Cystine stones are much rarer others. They form in people with an inherited disorder in which the kidneys produce excessive amounts of certain amino acids (cystinuria).
- Kidney stones in a family or personal history;
- Over the age of forty years;
- Paul. Kidney stones are formed often in men than in women;
- Features diet. The high content of protein, sodium and / or sugar in the diet can increase the risk of certain types of kidney stones;
- Diseases of the digestive system and surgery to treat them. These factors may affect the absorption of calcium and increase the concentration of substances that contribute to the formation of kidney stones;
- Other disorders, such as cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism and some urinary tract infections also increase the risk of kidney stones.
For suspected kidney stones, the following diagnostic methods:
- A blood test, with which you can identify an excess of calcium or uric acid
Uric acid - a normal level?
- Analysis of urine;
- Medical imaging. In order to detect kidney stones used CT scans or X-rays less often.
For small kidney stones and minimal symptoms, patients are advised to drink at least two liters of water a day to the stones out faster. Since the output of the stones may be accompanied by a more or less severe pain, taking pain appointed, as a rule, OTC.
If kidney stones are too large, so they can go out on their own, using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - the splitting of stones in the kidney sound waves, or stone removal surgery.
Kidney stones in children
Urolithiasis affects mostly adults, but in the past decades have seen an increasing number of children with this disease. According to one of the largest children's hospitals in the US, in 1999, 100,000 young patients had an average of 18.4 patients with urolithiasis
Kidney stones - why women tolerate it harder?
And in 2008, 100,000 patients had been 57 children with kidney stones. Their share of the total number of sick children are still small, but growing number of quite obvious. Why it happens it is not clear. Doctors note that the majority of children with urolithiasis are in their early teens and have a normal weight. Many of them do not drink enough water, and in addition, a substantial part of a family history of urolithiasis. It is also noted that the children spread the same types of kidney stones, as adults, and their symptoms are also significant differences.
Alcohol and kidney stones
Experts have long linked drinking alcohol to an increased risk of kidney stones. The existence of this communication is indirectly confirmed by the fact that in recent years has increased significantly the number of women suffering from kidney stones. If earlier the likelihood of developing this disorder in men was three times greater than that of women, to date, the number of patients among both sexes is almost equal. Scientists have no doubt - this is due to the fact that women more often abuse alcohol and often have other bad habits that may gradually lead to the formation of kidney stones.
On the other hand, one study showed that regular consumption of moderate doses of beer and wine may slightly reduce the risk of kidney stones. Conducts research experts stress that is potentially useful to moderate consumption of beer and wine, and about the benefits of alcoholic beverages is not known, so it is better to avoid them. However, for the prevention of kidney stones is better not to drink a couple of beers a week (although this will not harm - as long as you can it is limited), and lead a healthy lifestyle - correctly and diverse eating, exercise, stop bad habits
Bad habits - second nature?
Inflammation of the kidney - do not suffer pain
February 4, 2010
- Inflammation of the kidney - do not suffer pain
- How is the inflammation of the kidney
The kidneys play an important role filter, helps to cleanse the blood from the various metabolic products
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
("Waste" of the body). These are two small organs located on either side of the spine just above the waist. The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron, which is an epithelial tubule. Through this tube enters the kidneys filtered liquid derived metabolic products, toxins, electrolytes and excess water. Each kidney has about 1-2 million nephrons. The final product "processing" - urine, which then enters the renal pelvis, flows from the ureter. From ureteral urine into the bladder
Urinary bladder - structure and function
and excreted through the urethra. Functional processes in kidneys also regulate blood pressure, blood flow and volume of water and salt levels in the body.
What is inflammation of the kidneys?
Inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis) may affect how one or both kidneys. When inflammation to some extent impaired renal function (depending on the type, the cause and extent of inflammation). This disorder is called nephropathy. Although acute renal inflammation can cause short-term kidney dysfunction, chronic inflammation may lead to damage to renal tissue scarring in the kidney and, as a consequence, to kidney failure. In the absence of timely treatment, and acute and chronic inflammation of the kidneys is a danger to life.
Types of jade
There are several criteria for the classification of kidney inflammation, but the most common classification of the nephron inflamed and causes inflammation.
- Glomerulonephritis - an inflammation of the glomeruli of nephron renal corpuscle.
- Tubulointerstitial nephritis - inflammation of the tubules of the nephron and the surrounding interstitial kidney tissue. This form of jade is often referred to simply as interstitial nephritis.
- Pyelonephritis - an inflammation of the renal pelvis and urinary tract infections caused by urinary tract infection (UTI).
Each of these types of nephritis can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation in the majority of cases occur after recent myocardial diseases (tonsillitis, scarlet fever, pharyngitis), which is accompanied by hypothermia and decrease its immune defenses. During an infectious organism to attack kidney tissue has a strong influence as a destructive activity of the microorganisms themselves and the action of toxins secreted by them, often leading to allergic reactions. Chronic nephritis develops under the influence of infectious, toxic and immune factors. The disease is characterized by lesions of bilateral renal parenchyma with a gradual decline in their function.
Glomerulonephritis mainly arises as a result of diseases of the immune system. Immune activity directed on calf kidney glomeruli, particularly basal membrane and cause localized inflammation.
Other causes of glomerulonephritis:
- infection: poststreptococcal, subacute bacterial endocarditis, viral infections, parasitic infections (malaria) and fungal infections (rare);
- Autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, Goodpasture's syndrome, vasculitis
Vasculitis - when blood vessels refuse to work
(Wegener's granulomatosis, and polyarteritis nodosa), Henoch's disease;
- immune hypersensitivity (allergy), particularly in children;
- certain medications;
Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
- Malignant hypertension (high blood pressure);
- genetic diseases;
- Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Tubulointerstitial nephritis often occurs as a result of infection, drug hypersensitivity, toxicity of drugs and other substances, and under the action of autoimmune factors. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis sometimes associated with pyelonephritis.
Other causes of tubulointerstitial nephritis:
- urinary tract obstruction: the presence of stones or tumors;
- multiple myeloma (a cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow);
- metabolic disorders: hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, hyperoxaluria;
- genetic diseases.