Diseases of the nervous system - the basic classification

August 16, 2009

  • Diseases of the nervous system - the basic classification
  • Diseases

 Nervous System Disorders
   The nervous system is a complex system that regulates and coordinates the body. It consists of two main parts: central nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord and peripheral nervous system, which includes the remaining neural elements.

In addition to the brain and spinal cord most important organs of the nervous system are the eyes, ears, bodies responsible for the taste and smell, the sensory receptors located in the skin, joints, muscles and other body parts.

Damage to the nervous system can cause injuries, infections, degeneration, structural defects, tumors, blood disorders, autoimmune diseases Autoimmune diseases - when the body attacks itself  Autoimmune diseases - when the body attacks itself

Neurology - area of ​​medicine that deals with diseases of the nervous system. Treatment of these diseases with the use of surgical methods involved in neurosurgery. There is also a branch of medicine dealing with the rehabilitation of patients with diseases of the nervous system.

 Diseases of the nervous system - the basic classification

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in Western civilization. This disease is more common in women than men. The younger the person who discovered it, the more serious will be the consequences for his health. One of the most famous people who suffered from the disease - the former US President Ronald Reagan. He died of Alzheimer's disease-related complications in 2004.

The cerebral cortex and some of its other sites in this disease atrophied so much that at the time of death of the patient's brain can weigh 1,000 grams less than the weighed before the start of the disease. Most significantly szhivaetsya frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. The largest number of amyloid plaques appear in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. The greater the number of plaques, the greater the degree of dementia patient. Researchers continue to look for the causes of the disease and the cure for it. In 20% of patients with Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease - can be slowed down, it can not be cured  Alzheimer's disease - can be slowed down, it can not be cured
   this disease have a family history. In 3-5% of cases, one of the triggers becomes possible head injury.

It is known that in Alzheimer's disease by 70-90% decreased production of the enzyme responsible for the production of acetylcholine. Patients were also identified anomalies associated with some other neurotransmitters.

 Diseases of the nervous system - the basic classification

Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease is characterized by slowing of voluntary movements, bradykinesia, decreased mobility and muscle tremor, when a person is at rest. These violations are the result of reducing the number of neurons that are involved in the production of dopamine. Dopamine normally functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain called the striatum, where it acts on cholinergic neurons.

There are many possible reasons for reducing the number of dopaminergic neurons. One of the most likely causes of Parkinson's disease Parkinson's disease - where the nerve endings are destroyed  Parkinson's disease - where the nerve endings are destroyed
   are genetic characteristics and heredity.

 Diseases of the nervous system - the basic classification

Broca's Aphasia

Broca's Aphasia is defined as the loss of or impaired ability to use or understand words, usually due to brain damage.

Patients with aphasia Aphasia: types and treatment of the disease  Aphasia: types and treatment of the disease
   Brock is usually able to understand the meaning of words, but by itself it is very difficult to use even familiar words. Depending on the extent of damage to the motor speech center (Broca's area or) symptoms can range from mild (cortical dizatriya), while maintaining the ability to understand and communicate, at least, by letter, to severe, with complete loss of ability to respond to other people.

Fungal meningitis - often has a subacute or chronic course

November 3, 2013

 fungal meningitis
 Fungal meningitis is not as common as bacterial or viral. However, this disease is quite common and can be severe. Fungal meningitis occurs mainly in subacute or chronic and is accompanied by a high mortality rate. But there are also keen for fungal meningitis.


Fungal meningitis - Causes of disease

Fungal meningitis can be caused by many fungi, but most often it is the cause of Cryptococcus, coccidia and candida (yeast fungi genus Candida). Due to these causes of meningitis are as common symptoms, as well as its own characteristics, which should pay attention.

The prognosis of fungal meningitis is always very serious, as the treatment of fungal infections - is always a problem.


Blastomikozny meningitis

Blastomikozny meningitis develops against the background of cryptococcosis (European blastomycosis) - a disease caused by yeast fungi Cryptococcus. Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic deep fungal disease of humans and animals, mainly affecting the lungs, central nervous system, skin and subcutaneous tissue and then spread the infection to the internal organs. Sources of infection for humans and the spread of infection are currently unknown.

Symptoms of meningitis blastomikoznogo develop gradually, often showing signs of encephalitis (brain tissue damage) in the form of convulsions and lesions of the cranial nerves. Often develop small seizures of epilepsy Jackson type. At the same time against the clear consciousness of having spasms in some muscle or group of muscles limbs (usually the hand), or muscles of the face, followed by the spread of seizures on the same side limbs or facial muscles. Sometimes the cramps spread to the opposite side, and in some cases become generalized (common) character.

The disease resembles tuberculous meningitis TB meningitis - the consequences of the spread of the pathogen  TB meningitis - the consequences of the spread of the pathogen
 . Cerebrospinal fluid pressure is increased, it detected a large number of blood cells with a predominance of lymphocytes. The diagnosis is detection of the pathogen.

Treatment blastomikoznogo meningitis is antifungal agents, mainly amphotericin B (it is administered intravenously and into the spinal canal) in combination with antikriptokokkovoy rabbit serum or gamma globulin.


Koktsidioidozny meningitis

Coccidioidomycosis (California fever) - a disease that is caused by filamentous yeasts coccidia. Coccidioidomycosis is manifested in the form of primary pulmonary infection, progressive granulomatous lesions of the skin, bones, joints, internal organs and the meninges. They get sick, not only people but also animals - rodents, dogs, cattle. The pathogen is the soil from which the spores enter the body by inhalation of dust. The pathogen can also be transmitted from person to person and from animal to person through close contact.

The disease begins in an average of two weeks after infection, and flows initially in the form of a cold or pneumonia with skin lesions in the form of nodular or exudative erythema multiforme.

Inflammation in the lining of the brain characterized by the formation of multiple small nodules in the process often involved with the substance of the brain - is developed meningoencephalitis. The disease chronic, lasting for several months, the prognosis is poor.

Treatment is carried out as amphotericin B.


Candida meningitis

Candida meningitis - because of fungal meningitis is the most common. Called it the yeast of the genus Candida, and often develops in the lungs or kidneys candidiasis. In the meninges formed infiltrates from blood cells, and the epithelium, followed by hemorrhage necrosis (tissue necrosis). Often defeat of the meninges proceeds to brain tissue, where they form small abscesses.

There are diffuse meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges  Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
 , Basal meningitis (preferentially localized on the lower surface of the brain) and meningoencephalitis. Symptoms resemble Candida meningitis tuberculous meningitis or abscess Abscess - why it is so dangerous ulcers?  Abscess - why it is so dangerous ulcers?

Diagnosis is based on detection of the infectious agent in cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment of vulvovaginal meningitis carried antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B and fluconazole Fluconazole - used with caution  Fluconazole - used with caution

Fungal meningitis - this is a very dangerous disease and its prognosis depends largely on how quickly the patient will be prescribed appropriate treatment.

Galina Romanenko

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