Tramadol: kills the pain - Mechanism of Action
April 14th, 2011
- Tramadol: kills the pain
- Mechanism of action
The mechanism of action of tramadol
Tramadol - a synthetic opioid analgesic agent with a mixed mechanism of action. Opioids are centrally acting pain medications that affect the body at the level of the central nervous system by inhibiting the flow of pain impulses. Preparations of this series differ from each other analgesic potential and ability to reduce moderate to severe pain. Because of the good analgesic properties of opioids are widely used in various fields of medicine dealing with severe pain, particularly in surgery, including cancer.
Tramadol belongs to the main class of opioid analgesics - enhancing sensitivity of opioid receptors. This class includes various agents with analgesic power, for example, powerful drug heroin, drugs morphine, fentanyl, promedol, codeine.
These drugs can produce severe side effects, in addition, most of them are listed drugs, known to cause psychic and physical dependence, i.e. addiction. The only exception is tramadol, which does not cause dependence, it is not a drug, but is related to the potent drugs that are served at the pharmacy on prescription only. Tramadol inhibits conduct pain impulses in the central nervous system, in addition, it increases the effects of sedatives.
Tramadol is available in capsules for oral administration, it is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract into the blood, the brain and spinal cord. It may pass through the placenta to the fetus, as well as to stand out from the milk of nursing mothers. Decomposed in the liver, resulting in 11 new substances (metabolites), one of which has a pharmacological activity. Excreted in the urine.
Indications and contraindications
Tramadol is prescribed in the following cases:
- for pain of moderate to severe intensity of various origins (after surgery, injury, pain in cancer patients);
- as an analgesic during some diagnostic or therapeutic procedures involving pain.
Contraindications to the use of tramadol:
- conditions that may occur respiratory depression or depression of the respiratory and circulatory centers in the brain (alcohol poisoning, sleeping pills, narcotic analgesics, psychotropic drugs);
- significant liver function abnormalities;
- the simultaneous use of certain tranquilizers (sedatives);
- Pregnancy and breast-feeding
Breastfeeding - a personal choice
- age up to 14 years;
- idiosyncrasy of tramadol and other opioids.
With caution and in lower doses of tramadol administered with moderate renal dysfunction and liver, head injury, increased intracranial pressure, prone to seizures, patients with addiction to opioids, as well as elderly patients.
In the treatment of tramadol can not drink alcohol, drive a car and engage in other potentially hazardous activities that require attention.
Side effects that may occur during treatment
When using tramadol can cause the following side effects:
- the central nervous system: dizziness, headache, weakness, lethargy or irritability, fatigue, sweating, anxiety
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, Trembling of the limbs and body, euphoria (unjustly joyful mood) or, conversely, depression, hallucinations, poor sleep
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or hypersomnia, disturbances of consciousness and motor coordination, seizures, impaired memory; long-term use may develop drug dependence;
- from the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, thirst, dry mouth, bloating, abdominal pain
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, Constipation or diarrhea;
- the part of the circulatory system: tachycardia, lowering blood pressure;
- from respiratory: respiratory failure;
- from the urinary organs: violation of urination and menstruation;
- From the senses: blurred vision and taste;
- Allergic reactions: skin rashes, including urticaria, pruritus.
Overdose of tramadol
With an overdose of tramadol may appear disordered breathing until it stops, a sharp drop in blood pressure, vomiting, convulsions and coma.
Treatment - gastric lavage and treatment in the intensive care unit of a hospital.
Tramadol - effective painkillers, but as with all opioids, it requires the use only under medical supervision.
Fluoxetine - improves mood - Medicines, uplifting
April 2, 2009
- Fluoxetine - improve mood
- Medicines, uplifting
Depression - a serious mental condition, which is often a response to stress and can even lead to suicide. When depression appears depressed mood, lack of interest in life, sleep disorders, obsessive thoughts of unpleasant content, a sense of worthlessness.
Depression occurs when a lack of the neurotransmitter (a chemical that can cause the transmission of electrical impulses in nerve cells) serotonin. Serotonin is responsible for the emotional stability, self-control, sleep mode, it is also called "hormone of happiness" as its level rises during good mood and decreases during the Depression.
For the treatment of depression have created special drugs, anti-depressants, can block the processes of decay serotonita, and hence improve mood.
Fluoxetine - antidepressant that selectively prevents the reuptake of serotonin, which leads to higher concentrations of this neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft (spot transmission of nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another), enhances and prolongs its action on postsynaptic receptor sites. Fluoxetine has a mild stimulant effect, it causes a decrease in appetite, can lead to weight loss, improves mood, decrease feelings of fear and tension. Is used in the treatment of depression, it does not cause a calming effect.
Persistent clinical effect develops within two weeks of the regular administration of the drug and lasts for a few weeks after its cancellation.
This is shown fluoxetine
Fluoxetine is assigned only to the doctor under the following conditions:
- depressions of different origin;
- in various states of anxiety;
- bulimic neuroses (bulimia - increased appetite);
- in the treatment of alcoholism
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Fluoxetine is contraindicated in:
- in case of hypersensitivity to the drug;
- at the age of 18;
- Pregnancy and lactation;
- the propensity to suicide;
- diabetes mellitus;
- when expressed violations of the liver and kidneys;
- when the bladder muscle relaxation (atony);
- in prostate cancer;
An overdose of fluoxetine appears to initiate, nausea, vomiting, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, palpitations. Treat a better overdose in hospital.
What side effects may cause fluoxetine
Fluoxetine is generally well tolerated, but sometimes there are side effects:
- From the nervous system: anxiety, irritability
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, Increased suicidal tendencies, fatigue, insomnia or drowsiness, nightmares, headache, visual acuity, mydriasis, taste disturbance, thought disorder, tremors, gait disturbance, muscle twitching, and sometimes may develop seizures;
- From the digestive system: dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, loss of appetite, significant weight loss;
- With the genitourinary system: urinary disorders, decreased libido, upset various parts of intercourse, impotence
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, Menstrual irregularities;
- on the part of the cardiovascular system: heart rate, a sharp decrease in blood pressure during the transition from the "lying" to "sitting";
- from the blood coagulation system: bleeding skin;
- Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching, hives, angioedema;
- on the part of the endocrine system: drop in blood sugar
Blood sugar - a very important indicator
What to consider when fluoxetine
- During treatment with fluoxetine should not take alcoholic beverages.
- The drug should be taken with caution for those who are behind the wheel or the work requires a special focus, as fluoxetine may cause disturbances of attention and coordination.
- Precautions should be prescribed the drug for diseases of the cardiovascular system, disorders of the liver and kidneys because of a large number of side effects.
- Fluoxetine is a good antidepressant, but it can be treated only under the guidance of a doctor.