- Stuttering - when you need a comprehensive approach
Stuttering and its causes
Stuttering - a violation of the rhythm of speech, hinders communication with other people. It is accompanied by halting stuttering man, stop, repetition of individual sounds, syllables, words. They also tend to the introduction of speech-plus words (eg, "well", "here", "mean"). For people suffering from stuttering, characterized by the presence of concomitant speech movements (nods, twitches, zazhmurivany swinging), and the substitution of "difficult" words "light" (so-called tricks), avoidance of difficult speech situations.
Among the causes of stuttering is most important genetic predisposition, the effect of various harmful factors on the fetus during the mother's pregnancy, a variety of diseases and trauma in early childhood. Stuttering is more common in men than in women.
At the heart of stuttering is entrenched painful reflex (the body's response to certain effects), which developed as a result of trauma to the general neurotic background.
Basic features and types of stuttering
This stuttering person, especially in a situation of anxiety or expectations occurs on a background of rhythm disturbances of breathing, rapid heartbeat, redness or blanching face, sweating and so on. The severity of all of these phenomena in some cases reflect the severity of their own speech defect, while others are closely dependent on the emotional state of patients in speech situations. There are two types of stuttering - evolutionary and symptomatic or secondary.
Evolutionary stuttering occurs during the formation of speech - from two to five years. Depending on whether it occurs on the basis of neurotic or background of organic brain damage (in violation of its buildings), distinguish between neurotic and neurosis stuttering.
Evolutionary stuttering can have both acute and gradual onset. Often the appearance of the first stumbling in speech is preceded by a general weakening of the body after an illness (such as infections) and some neurotic disorders (sleep disorders
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, Tearfulness, fearfulness, and so on). In such cases, it is enough to sudden changes in environment, the appearance of sharp sounds and so on to the child in question appear smoothly.
Symptomatic (secondary) stuttering occurs in various types of speech pathology and in various diseases - traumatic brain injuries, epilepsy and so on.
The neurotic stuttering
Neurotic or logoneurosis stuttering usually begins after the startle response in children susceptible, prone to neurotic reactions. Voice spasms thus usually grow, and with them grow and neurotic changes: there are obsessive fears, irritability, weakness, fatigue, sleepwalking, bedwetting
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(children wet the bed). With age speech logoneurosis complicated tricks, associated movements and the growing fear of speech.
Usually 11-13 years the child is aware of the speech defect, he formed the fear of speech and indicated a strong desire to avoid difficult situations speech. For 15-16 years as stuttering and obschenevroticheskie disorders are most pronounced, which is reflected in the general health and social adaptation of patients. The impact of unfavorable factors and the lack of timely treatment, particularly in the early stages of the development of stuttering, may contribute to severe neurotic disorders with a growing sense of inferiority. In this speech cramps and neurotic symptoms are formed and modified heavier (pathological) personality traits: irritable weakness, excessive sensitivity and so on.
This type of stuttering usually has a gradual onset and occurs at a time when a child begins to speak phrases. At the same time the child except for stuttering, there are other speech disorders - tongue-tied, bystrogovorenie and so on. Compared with neurotic stuttering marked tendency to convulsive great voice, greater severity of concomitant speech movements. Often such children lag behind in physical and mental development. With age, there are features of stiffness in the manifestations of mental activity and viscosity at the time of a strong nervous and mental excitement (affect) the loss of voluntary control due to the temporary loss of control of the cerebral cortex.
Despite the expressed convulsive speech, the fear of speech in these cases is not as acute as for logoneuroses, and sometimes not at all worried sick. Neurological examination usually reveals signs of general central nervous system. Social adaptation of adult patients in this group is determined by the severity of disorders of the central nervous system.
Treatment of stuttering
Treatment of stuttering and complex life should begin only after a full examination. When logoneuroses at the forefront psychotherapeutic effects (autogenous training, hypnosis
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and so on). Appointed by calming and relieves muscle spasm drugs, is working with a speech therapist
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Neurosis stuttering requires massive medical treatment and speech therapy of hard work.
Any stuttering can be cured, but, first, it should be done as early as possible, and secondly, such treatment requires effort (and sometimes very large) side of the stutterer.