Meningococcal meningitis - a manifestation of generalized infection

November 16, 2013

 meningococcal meningitis
 Danger common forms of bacterial infection is complicated by the development of variants of the disease that can cause deaths. Meningococcal meningitis is characterized by lesions shells brain and spinal cord as a result of the progression of the pathological process. The most at risk of infection with the children, so adults should be alert to changes in the health status of the child and to the appearance of cerebral symptoms.


The most effective way of infection

For meningococcal meningitis main route of transmission is airborne route. In the environment, meningococcus does not have the ability to maintain long-term viability, so the contact way of infection is practically excluded. The source of infection is considered a few options:

  • Healthy bacillicarriers
  • a sick person with meningococcal infection

In terms of epidemiological significance to people around bacillicarriers represent a real threat, as they are the cause of the disease in about 80% of all clinical cases.

The children's groups there is considerable crowding children, they are closely in contact with each other during the joint games, resulting in a high concentration of the pathogen in the environment, if a team has a sick child or carrier. Meningococcal meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges  Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
   children also develop to the damage of hygiene in the room when it is not maintained at a certain level of temperature and humidity.

It proved the existence of a seasonal disease, when there is an increase in the frequency of clinical cases of meningitis at a certain time of the year. For meningococcal infection this time of year is winter-spring (February, March). Pathogen respond to possible fluctuations in the ambient temperature during this period when conditions are favorable for its propagation.


Clinical manifestations of bacterial infection

Important diagnostic criteria are clinical symptoms, the presence of which helps with the diagnosis. Meningococcal meningitis is characterized by acute onset, some patients may be called the exact start of the disease. The disease is progressive and is accompanied by severe toxic syndrome. The degree of severity of intoxication indicates an increase in body temperature to higher values, the presence of headaches, uncontrollable vomiting, nausea, weakness, lethargy, general weakness.

All of the symptoms of meningococcal meningitis can be combined in several clinical groups:

  • infectious-toxic syndrome
  • meningeal syndrome
  • hypertensive syndrome

Clinical manifestations of meningeal and hypertensive syndrome may be absent or not severe, while progressively developing symptoms of intoxication, causing death can occur. In children, one of the early symptoms of meningitis Symptoms of meningitis: treat only in hospital  Symptoms of meningitis: treat only in hospital
   is the development of seizures. The appearance of convulsive readiness can be judged by the presence of jerks, jerks or tremor. Character seizures often determines the degree of severity of the disease, as convulsions occur not only in the form of individual and seizures, as well as a large seizure type, which is a tonic-clonic character.

The majority of patients in meningococcal meningitis appears characteristic skin rash (almost 90%). The rash may be of various sizes (from small to large hemorrhages elements) are star-shaped with the development of heart necrosis. Localized skin rash of the trunk, face and extremities (may be affected upper and lower limbs). Confirm meningococcal nature of the disease can only be based on the results of bacteriological research.


Basic principles of treatment

On how soon began therapy for meningococcal disease and how it was adequate amount depends on the prognosis for the patient's life. It justified the appointment of antimicrobial drugs as the main etiotropic treatment. If the patient is not allergic to penicillin drugs, the use of benzyl penicillin calculate the mass of the human body. The drugs of choice are considered to kanamycin, rifampicin.

The composition of complex therapy includes measures to eliminate the toxicity, dehydration. In the course of infusion therapy not only takes into account the general condition of the patient, as well as blood pressure, urine output. The volume of fluid injected should be deducted in each clinical case, that allows to prevent the development of complications such as pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work  Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work
 . Preference is given to crystalloid solution, especially when the need for a large volume infusion liquid (more than one liter). At low blood pressure are appointed by hormones Hormonal treatments - not only contraceptives  Hormonal treatments - not only contraceptives
   from the group of glucocorticoids. Heart drugs or diuretics include a set of remedial measures after the removal of the patient's critical condition, if symptoms persist cerebral edema.

Treatment meninigokokkovogo meningitis after elimination of the acute period of the disease is aimed at improving the metabolic processes of microcirculation in the vessels of the brain. At the stage of completion of the full course of treatment measures can be used adaptogens (Siberian ginseng, ginseng, and other natural remedies). If the disease is in the form of a generalized process, the patient should be hospitalized. Children who have suffered meningokokovuyu infection can attend pre-school institutions, subject to the control of a negative result of bacteriological research of nasopharyngeal secretions.

Marina Solovyov

Article Tags:
  • types of meningitis

Massage in the intercostal neuralgia - the professional help of experts

August 4, 2012

 massage with intercostal neuralgia
 Massage in the intercostal neuralgia performed only after decrease in acute manifestations of the disease, and severe pain as well as if the attack was caused by osteochondrosis of the cervical spine. The patient should be examined as intercostal neuralgia Intercostal neuralgia - learn to distinguish between pain  Intercostal neuralgia - learn to distinguish between pain
   It can be caused by a tumor in which massage is contraindicated.

 Massage in the intercostal neuralgia - the professional help of experts

What benefits can bring massage

Massage in the intercostal neuralgia applies only when subacute for sparing technique. This massage helps to improve blood circulation and relieve the tension of the intercostal muscles, the muscles of the back and chest, and this in turn will contribute to the recovery.

When frequent exacerbations intercostal neuralgia massage is performed without exacerbation after a preliminary examination of the patient and establish a definitive diagnosis. The most common cause of intercostal neuralgia is an osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine Osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine can be confused with other diseases  Osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine can be confused with other diseases
 . This degenerative (caused by a metabolic disorder) disease that begins with the intervertebral disc and then spreads to the spine. With the destruction of the intervertebral discs, they can go beyond the spine and infringe upon the intercostal nerves.

Massage in this case, capable of improving blood circulation and nutrition of tissue in the thoracic spine, leading to the activation of metabolic processes, and partial recovery of the state of the spine as a whole. And this in turn is the prevention of recurrence of intercostal neuralgia.

Massage in the intercostal neuralgia should be performed only by a medical professional, specially trained and certified specialist therapeutic massage Massage Therapy - when it is needed?  Massage Therapy - when it is needed?
 . Performing massage layman unacceptable, because it can lead to an exacerbation of the disease.

The massage is performed not only in the thoracic, and the course of the spine, as osteochondrosis Osteochondrosis - learn how to properly distribute the weight  Osteochondrosis - learn how to properly distribute the weight
   rarely limited to a single thoracic and strikes, as a rule, the entire spine.

 Massage in the intercostal neuralgia - the professional help of experts

Back massage

Back massage is performed with the patient lying on his stomach. During the session covered the skin and muscles. In some cases, if the pain still worried patient acceptability of massage in his position sitting on a chair, leaning on a massage table, and relax the muscles.

It starts a session with a massage of the skin. Apply various techniques of surface and deep stroking, rubbing, vibration (shaking), pat and chopped the edge of his hand. When stroking the hand of the masseur should move in the direction of the spinous processes of the spine (the most prominent points of the spine) to the subclavian and axillary regions and from the spinous processes to iliac bone.

Separately, held long and short massage of the back muscles, the latissimus and trapezius muscles. Massage intercostal nerves carried outwards from the spinous processes of the spine with the use of methods of stroking, rubbing, uninterruptible vibration along the nerves.

As the pain subsided special effects are on the point adjacent to the thoracic spine.

 Massage in the intercostal neuralgia - the professional help of experts

Breast Massage

Breast massage is performed with the patient on the back, chest massage on the affected side. First, apply the surface stroking his hand, which lay on the edge of the sternum, parallel to the midline. Then the masseur's hand directed arch to the clavicle (so arranged fibers of the pectoralis major). Special Effects subject pectoralis major muscle and other major muscles of the chest.

Massage intercostal nerves is carried on the anterior axillary line, at the junction of the sternum with rib cartilage, along the line, next to the breastbone. Massage intercostal nerves carried with one hand, I or II with a finger or fingers II and III at the same time, apart forked. Used stroking, rubbing, uninterruptible vibration. During the massage, the intercostal nerves of the patient's hand to be raised up.

If detected during the massage tender points, massage techniques in this field are performed gentle. During the massage, the therapist must take into account the nature of the pathological process and focus on the sensations and the patient's condition. It makes masseurs individual approach to the implementation of massage therapy in each patient. If you do not comply with this condition, massage with intercostal neuralgia can not bring benefit and harm.

Properly conducted a massage course at intercostal neuralgia gives a good therapeutic effect.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • intercostal neuralgia