Mixed astigmatism - a violation of

October 23, 2013

 mixed astigmatism
 Mixed astigmatism is most often congenital. In the same eye phenomena develop presbyopia Hyperopia - than it is fraught?  Hyperopia - than it is fraught?
   (hyperopia), and short-sightedness (myopia). Such disturbances result in a person suffering from astigmatism mixed medium and high, sees all surrounding objects distorted.


What is a mixed astigmatism

Astigmatism is developing at the wrong curvature of the cornea or irregular shape of the lens. At the same time the light rays are refracted properly on the retina instead of one point formed a few. As a result, a person can not distinguish the point of the short line, a circle of the oval, and so on.

Mixed astigmatism: symptoms and treatment of this disease is well known. In astigmatism, there are two main meridian of refraction of light rays - vertical and horizontal, which is always perpendicular in relation to each other. When mixed astigmatism in one of the main meridians develops farsightedness, and in another - myopia. In this single focus positioned in front of the retina, and the second behind the retina. That is, in one meridian can be seen on the type of refraction of myopia Myopia - just a feature of  Myopia - just a feature of
   (nearsightedness), and in another meridian on the type of hyperopia (farsightedness). But the vertical meridian is always greater refractive power than the horizontal (straight astigmatism). If the horizontal meridian yet has a more pronounced refraction, such astigmatism is called the inverse, it is less common.

When mixed astigmatism on the retina creates a fuzzy, blurry image.

Moreover, if a person suffering from astigmatism, examines the subject from different angles, some parts of it may appear distorted or less vague than others. Mixed astigmatism in both eyes can cause a significant reduction in vision.


Signs of mixed astigmatism

A person suffering from a mixed astigmatism, can not see clearly any distance or up close. He sees everything blurred, curved. Characteristically, when checking the visual acuity, he may not be called large letters, but clearly - smaller. When reading such a patient also confounds similar letters and words. Patients often complain that they can not determine the size of the considered objects and distance to them.

Disturb and common symptoms mainly strong paroxysmal headaches, especially after prolonged voltage of, for example, after working at a computer. Patients also experienced rapid eye fatigue.


Mixed astigmatism in children

Mixed astigmatism Astigmatism - lenses, glasses or surgery?  Astigmatism - lenses, glasses or surgery?
   children usually has a congenital in nature and is related to the curvature of the cornea. As a rule, in the family, there are other family members who suffer from mixed astigmatism.

In childhood astigmatism often associated with strabismus. Due to the fact that the child has blurred vision since birth and it can not be considered as the surrounding objects, he may fall behind in the neuro-psychological development, but because of strabismus Strabismus - how to find the cause?  Strabismus - how to find the cause?
   subject to peer ridicule. Blurred vision also leads to further delay development of visual function. Disrupted the visual cells, which leads to progressive loss of vision due to the development of amblyopia - a violation of a functional nature, which can not be correct glasses.

Great value with mixed astigmatism in children is as early as possible its detection and correction of vision.


Mixed astigmatism - Treatment

The basic principle is treatment of mixed astigmatism increase in the optical power of the eye in one direction and decreasing in the other, perpendicular to the first. Vision correction is performed by selecting special glasses or contact lenses with a combination of cylindrical and spherical glass. This vision correction allows you to see well while wearing glasses, but does not eliminate entirely from astigmatism.

Completely get rid of this disease is possible only with the help of surgery.

Conducted following surgery:

  • astigmatic keratotomy - drawing on the cornea in certain places mikronasechek, it allows you to change the curvature of the cornea in the right direction and thus achieve vision correction; this operation unfortunately is not always effective, moreover, it is accompanied by a long and painful postoperative period;
  • Laser vision correction is a more effective way; to increase the optical power of the eye in one meridian of the corneal surface made more prominent by removing tissue from the outer layer of the cornea and the other meridian corneal surface made flatter by removing tissue from the central zone of the cornea; postoperative period after laser correction is quick and not painful.

Mixed astigmatism can be corrected well.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • astigmatism

Astigmatism - lenses, glasses or surgery?

October 22 2013

  • Astigmatism - lenses, glasses or surgery?
  • Vision correction
  • Surgery
  • Forum

 Astigmatism - is a common and easily treatable disorders caused clouding visible objects. Astigmatism occurs when the cornea or lens of the eye are the wrong bend. Typically, people with this disorder of the cornea has a more flat areas and areas with strong bending. This leads to the fact that a person sees the objects washed matter how far away they are. Along with the haze visible objects for astigmatism can be characterized by frequent headaches and eye strain.

Adopted The beaten corneal astigmatism and lenticular - improper curvature of the cornea and lens, respectively. Astigmatism often develops in combination with nearsightedness or farsightedness. Astigmatism may be present at birth or may develop as a result of eye injury, illness, or surgery. The causes of this disorder are not reading in poor light, the habit of sitting too close to the TV, or long-term work at the computer.

Astigmatism is very common, but a small degree of its influence on visual acuity. The high degree of astigmatism may have a significant impact on the function of so astigmatism should be promptly evaluated and treated. It lends itself well to correct congenital form of astigmatism. It is much harder to deal with acquired astigmatism arising after various injuries and illnesses.


What is astigmatism eyes and see how people with astigmatism

Astigmatism - a visual impairment associated with the lack of a clear focus image of an object on the retina. This happens because of a violation of the cornea or (much less likely) lens. Thus, the isolated corneal and lenticular astigmatism.

Normally, the cornea is the transparent section of the world. Rays are refracted in a cornea are focused in one point of the retina, resulting in a clearer image of the subject. When corneal astigmatism cornea has an irregular shape or a segment of a rotating ellipse (correct astigmatism), or covered with scars, opaque patches (irregular astigmatism). This creates a little (sometimes a lot) meridian refraction of light rays, which contributes to the appearance of several points on the retina image and leads to lack of clarity of vision objects. The combination in one eye corneal and lenticular astigmatism. A person with astigmatism sees all things vague and the degree of visual impairment has a clear connection with the degree of astigmatism.

A small degree of astigmatism (no more than 0, 5 diopters or D - a unit measuring the optical power of the lens; 1 D is equal to the optical power of the lens with a focal length of 1 meter) - a phenomenon very often, his men usually do not notice, because the visual acuity it does not It reflected (physiological astigmatism).

The degree of astigmatism can be much larger, there are three degrees of it:

  • weak degree of astigmatism - no more than no more than 3.0 D;
  • the average degree of astigmatism - from 3.0 to 5.0 D;
  • astigmatism high - more than 6.0 D.


What causes astigmatism

In most cases astigmatism is hereditary - there are entire families, the sick astigmatism. Congenital astigmatism is usually correct. It meets and acquired astigmatism, it develops after injuries and diseases - various infections, metabolic diseases of the cornea or lens. At the same time on the surface of the cornea and lens appear cloudy spots on the surface of the cornea - scarring, resulting in impaired vision and. There is such a thing as post-operative astigmatism - it develops after a variety of eye surgeries. For example, astigmatism is a typical complication after cataract surgery Cataract surgery - surgery  Cataract surgery - surgery
 As in the operation for obtaining access to the lens is carried cut on the edge of the cornea.

Astigmatism is an eye - is not fully understood disease. Causes of astigmatism to date have not been established, but their study is underway.


Types of astigmatism

At least with the right eye astigmatism are two so-called principal meridian always perpendicular to each other - vertical and horizontal. One of them always has a higher refractive power, and the other smaller. In most cases, strongly refracts the vertical meridian, at least - horizontal. On this basis astigmatism divided into forward and reverse.

Direct astigmatism - this is when a stronger refraction has a vertical meridian, reverse astigmatism - the prevalence of refractive horizontal meridian. If the principal meridians are oblique direction (however, remaining perpendicular to each other), it turns astigmatism with oblique axes.

Depending on the combination of refraction (refractive power of the eye) in the principal meridians are several types of astigmatism:

  • when emmetropia (normal refraction) in one of the main meridians and myopia or hyperopia (farsightedness or nearsightedness), astigmatism in the other meridian is called simple; There are simple myopic astigmatism and hyperopic astigmatism simple;
  • if both main meridians has hyperopia or myopia of various degrees, it is difficult astigmatism; distinguish complex myopic astigmatism Myopic astigmatism - a combination of astigmatism and nearsightedness  Myopic astigmatism - a combination of astigmatism and nearsightedness
   hyperopic astigmatism and complex;
  • if one of the principal meridians attaching hyperopia, myopia and in another, it is mixed astigmatism Mixed astigmatism - a violation of  Mixed astigmatism - a violation of



During diagnosis astigmatism using a device known as a keratometer, determine the amount and direction of light reflected by the cornea. Furthermore, using keratoscopy determine the degree of curvature of the corneal surface.

Check astigmatism begins with visual acuity. Another method of diagnosis of astigmatism is the shadow sample - skiascopy. With this method it is possible to identify the position of the main meridians and determine their refraction.

By means of special devices Oftalmometres can quickly and accurately identify the corneal astigmatism, its nature, extent and location of the main meridians. Position the main meridians, the type and degree of astigmatism in this study are recorded in a cruciform shape, corresponding to the main meridians, numerals degree of astigmatism (in diopters) indicated graphically on a stronger meridian that gives an indication of the nature of astigmatism (forward or reverse). Work is also ultrasound of the eye.

To determine the degree of corneal astigmatism conduct computer corneal topography.

Additionally, with the help of corrective glasses or skiascope determined by the refraction of each of the main meridians.

See also the fundus to exclude pathology of the vitreous body, nerves and blood vessels located in the area of ​​the fundus.



For the correction of astigmatism with the patient may be advised to wearing glasses or contact lenses.

There are special glasses and lenses, which help not only with myopia and hyperopia, and astigmatism at. There are many types of contact lenses, which are suitable for patients with different needs. Your doctor will help you choose the most suitable option.

For the treatment of astigmatism Treatment of astigmatism - conservative or surgical?  Treatment of astigmatism - conservative or surgical?
   It may also be used surgical techniques. The most common of these is the laser vision correction. The operation is performed under local anesthesia, it takes no more than half an hour, and the patient may be on the same day to go home.

An alternative to laser vision correction are photorefractive keratectomy and laser subepithelial kerateektomiya. The latter is ideal for people who have thin corneas from nature, as well as those who due to work or contact sports increased risk of eye injury.

Side effects of such operations can be dryness and irritation of the eyes, deterioration and even loss of vision. However, this rarely occurs and in most cases the operation is successful.


Exercising with astigmatism

When astigmatism is useful as a general gymnastics and special exercises for eyes, which should be carried out every day two or three times a day for a month and then take a break and subsequent courses of conduct prescribed by a doctor:

  • sit on a chair, back straight, head up; look down and to the right, keeping in view long as possible; then transfer the look to the right and repeat the exercise;
  • former starting position; Look at the tip of the nose and eyes get tired when making their rotational movement in one or the other way;
  • former starting position; close your eyes and hands to massage them first, and then the fingertips to the center first and then him.


Glasses with astigmatism

Selection of glasses with astigmatism - a difficult task. At correct congenital astigmatism, visual acuity can be significantly improved, or even brought to normal with the help of corrective glasses cylinder - cylinder segments optically not the action against the Rays, going to the plane of the cylinder axis. This window should be as activity in relation to the rays, going in the direction perpendicular to the axis.

Collective or cylindrical glass diffuser respective forces pose an astigmatic eye so that the axis of the cylinder located on the meridian, which is the least deviation from the norm and refraction is no need to change.


Prevention astigmatism

To prevent astigmatism should promptly treat all eye diseases - it will prevent the acquired astigmatism. When mild astigmatism in order to avoid the progression of the disease, should be dosed visual load (in any case can not be read, or lying in low light), to carry out exercises for the eyes, the courses of physiotherapy. To view the training there are also special pinhole glasses.