Tuberculosis of the eye - how to recognize the disease

April 16, 2014

 Tuberculosis eyes
 Ocular tuberculosis - a disease which is characterized by persistent, often relapsing. TB is found Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed  Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed
   eyes often enough among all extrapulmonary forms is a little less than 20%. Typically, tuberculosis eye combined with an inactive tuberculosis in other organs, most commonly the lungs.


How is TB Eye

There are metastatic ocular tuberculosis and tuberculosis-allergic eye disease. In metastatic tuberculosis tubercle bacillus enters the bodies of the bloodstream from other (sometimes distant) foci of infection. It can also get into the area of ​​the eye or through perenevralnye perevaskulyarnye space (space around the nerves and blood vessels) with tuberculous meningitis, or by contact with the skin lesions, sinuses, and so on. Metastatic tuberculosis eye has many forms and manifestations. Symptoms depend on the location of the inflammatory process in the eyeball, the condition of the immune system and the degree of sensitization (sensitization) of an organism.

Tuberculous allergic eye disease characterized by pronounced manifestation of immune responses such as "antigen - antibody." This type of ocular tuberculosis develops in people with pre-existing severe allergic reaction to tubercle bacillus. Contact with such cases, the sensitized eye tissue pathogen leads to the development of the expressed inflammatory process, which is based on how infectious and allergic processes. Typically, allergic reactions while often mask infection and patients with ocular tuberculosis long and unsuccessfully treated for allergies.


Symptoms of TB of the eye (metastatic)

Metastatic tuberculosis eye can manifest as chorioretinitis, anterior uevita, keratitis, scleritis, tuberculosis of the conjunctiva and eyelids slezovyvodyaschih ways.

Tuberculous chorioretinitis (inflammation of the choroid and retina) miliary, focal and disseminated form of tuberculosis chorioretinitis. Miliary tuberculosis chorioretinitis occurs against the backdrop of miliary tuberculosis Miliary tuberculosis - when possible death?  Miliary tuberculosis - when possible death?
   and it is characterized by the appearance of the fundus multiple small foci, which can then disappear without a trace, or leave behind a dot plots atrophy. Usually one eye is affected.

The most common form is the focal tuberculous chorioretinitis. With him in the choroid appears large enough tuberculous focus, which quickly spread to the retina. In patients with impaired eyesight as fuzzy as if floating spots before the eyes, blurred vision, sometimes - pain in the eyeball.

Disseminated tuberculosis chorioretinitis is characterized by the appearance in the choroid tuberkulezneyh multiple foci, not prone to mergers, but extends to the retina.

Chorioretinitis Tuberculosis often occurs with severe inflammation and bleeding and swelling of the retina that lead to temporary or permanent impairment, especially if the TB center is located in the center of the fundus in the area of ​​the optic disc.


Symptoms of ocular tuberculosis (tuberculosis, allergies)

To TB-allergic diseases include phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, keratitis, conjunctivitis, scleritis, and iridocyclitis. All these diseases usually begin acutely occurring is not very long (from a few days to 4-6 weeks) and after a while recur. Affects both eyes, but not immediately: usually first one and after a while a second.

Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea) begins with the appearance of the conjunctiva or cornea of ​​single or multiple conflicts (round grayish nodules), which are suitable conjunctival vessels. The outcome of the disease can be complete resolution of their conflicts or ulceration, perforation of the cornea, and accompanied by the formation of cataracts, soldered to the iris. In severe disease associated signs of inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye (iridocyclitis). The disease can be complicated by the addition of a purulent infection that also leads to the formation of cataracts.


Eye Treatment of tuberculosis

Treatment of ocular tuberculosis should be complex. The structure of the complex treatment is required to include antibiotic therapy, appointed in accordance with the general principles of the treatment of tuberculosis Treatment of tuberculosis - a lengthy process and requires constant monitoring  Treatment of tuberculosis - a lengthy process and requires constant monitoring
 . In order to prevent the formation of rough scars, three months after the start of treatment is assigned to substances that inhibit the growth of connective tissue (lidazu, papain, etc.). Be sure to also prescribe drugs that suppress allergic reactions. When expressed allergic reactions in the complex treatment of glucocorticoid hormones are administered. Duration of treatment - up to a year. Begin treatment at the hospital, then continues on an outpatient basis.

Tuberculosis of the eye - is a frequent manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis Extrapulmonary tuberculosis - many forms  Extrapulmonary tuberculosis - many forms
 , Which requires timely detection and treatment.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • types of tuberculosis

Sjogren's Syndrome: systemic autoimmune disease

February 3, 2011

  • Sjogren's Syndrome: systemic autoimmune disease
  • Manifestation

 Sjogren cindrom
 Sjogren's syndrome - a disorder associated with the work of the immune system, which is characterized by two main symptoms: dryness of the eyes and mucous membranes of the mouth. Sjogren's syndrome is often accompanied by other autoimmune disorders, for example, such as rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis - a variety of forms and complications  Arthritis - a variety of forms and complications
   and lupus. Sjogren's syndrome primarily affects the mucous membrane of the mouth and the tear glands - this leads to a decrease in production of liquid, moisturizing eye, and saliva. However, at later stages of the syndrome can cause damage to the joints, thyroid The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones  The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
 , Kidney, liver, lung, skin and nerves.

While Sjogren's syndrome can develop at any age, it most often diagnosed in patients over forty years. This disorder is much more common in women than in men.

 Sjogren's Syndrome: systemic autoimmune disease


The two main symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome:

  • Dry eye (accompanied by burning, itching sensation in the eyes and, like the presence of in the eyes of small foreign objects).
  • The dryness of the oral mucosa, because of which the patient can be difficult to swallow and talk.

Some patients with Sjögren's syndrome may also experience some of the following symptoms:

  • Joint pain, swelling and numbness
  • Salivary gland enlargement
  • Skin rash or dry skin
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Constant dry cough
  • Lethargy, fatigue causeless

Many patients for a long time do not pay attention to these symptoms. Indeed, since the condition is often improved, however, with the appearance of symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome is strongly recommended to be screened, as they may indicate a more serious violation.

 Sjogren's Syndrome: systemic autoimmune disease


Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder. This means that the immune system mistakenly produces antibodies that destroy tissue. Scientists are divided on why some people develop Sjogren's syndrome, while others - not. Some genes increase susceptibility to human Sjogren's syndrome, but its development is needed and some trigger - for example, an infection caused by a virus or a certain kind of bacteria.

 Sjogren's Syndrome: systemic autoimmune disease

Risk factors

  • Age. Most of the patients with a diagnosis of "Sjogren's syndrome" over forty years.
  • Paul. Women are more prone to Sjogren's syndrome than men.
  • Rheumatoid disease. In patients with diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis - when the sore joints  Rheumatoid arthritis - when the sore joints
   and increases the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome.

 Sjogren's Syndrome: systemic autoimmune disease


The most common complications of Sjogren's syndrome affects the eyes and mouth.

  • Caries. Because saliva helps protect teeth from bacteria that cause tooth decay, while reducing its development increases the risk of destruction of tooth enamel, and the deeper layers forming teeth.
  • Yeast infection. People who have been diagnosed with Sjogren's syndrome, the most likely to develop oral thrush.
  • Vision problems. Dry eye can lead to increased sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and ulcers on the cornea.

The following complications of Sjogren's syndrome are much rarer:

  • Problems with the lungs, kidneys or liver. Inflammatory processes in the body can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, renal failure, hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   or cirrhosis.
  • Complications of pregnancy. Women who have been diagnosed with Sjogren's syndrome, and who are planning to become pregnant, you must first consult with a physician. In rare cases, the antibodies that are produced in this disease can cause heart malformations in the fetus.
  • The lymphatic system. A small percentage of patients with Sjögren's syndrome increases the risk of cancer of the lymph nodes - lymphoma.
  • Nerve tissue. Sjogren's syndrome can cause peripheral neuropathy - a disorder that is usually characterized by numbness, tingling and burning sensation in the hands and feet.