Sarcoidosis of the eye occurs in the form of bilateral flaccid inflammatory process in the choroid, retina and optic nerve. Signs of ocular sarcoidosis may be the first signs of systemic disease, and can be connected to other forms of sarcoidosis. Therefore, all patients with sarcoidosis necessarily vision checked.
Sarcoidosis of the eye - why it begins
Sarcoidosis of the eye - is a form of systemic disease in which may affect any organ system. Sarcoidosis of vision can occur as an independent disease, but more often it is a manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis.
Most ocular sarcoidosis sick woman under the age of 30 years. The cause of the disease is not fully established, but it is believed that the critical belongs to heredity.
Properties immune individuals predisposed to the disease, leading to the fact that, in response to some external stimulus (usually well-tolerated by others) have developed specific inflammation.
A feature of sarcoidosis is the formation in the tissues of various organs and tissue concentrations of inflammatory cells - granulomas. In sarcoidosis eye gpanulemy developed primarily in the choroid, retina and optic nerve. Sarcoidosis of the eye is not as common, but in recent years the incidence of this form of sarcoidosis is growing, which is clearly associated with improved detection of it.
The structure of the eye membranes
The human eye has three membranes: the outer, middle (vascular) and internal (the retina). The outer shell is the cornea (the front part - it is transparent, convex, passes and refracts light rays) and sclera (the rest of the non-transparent).
The choroid is the middle and consists of small blood vessels. The front part of the choroid is called the iris, the side - ciliary body, posterior - choroid (choroid). Choroid is connected to the retina and provides it with necessary nutrients.
The retina - is the inner membrane of the eye, it is composed of several layers of nerve cells, it displayed on the objects that we see. Information on them is then transmitted by the optic nerve to the brain.
The outer surface of the eye is covered by the conjunctiva - the thin protective coating consisting of a connective tissue framework, covered with epithelium.
Sarcoidosis of the eye - as it flows
Symptoms of ocular sarcoidosis is very diverse, is affected most often suffers choroid, especially the front office - the iris, ciliary body. Inflammation of the eye is called the choroid uevitom. Uevit can be front - with the inflamed iris (iris and ciliary body - iridocyclitis) and rear - inflamed choroid (choroiditis).
In sarcoidosis eye choroid usually develops bilateral iridocyclitis sluggish or front uevit. The inflammation may also be involved choroid, retina and optic nerve. The defeat of the choroid occurs in the form of granulomatous uveitis.
A feature of ocular sarcoidosis is that the characteristic granulomas in acute inflammation are absent and appears only when it becomes chronic.
Another feature of sarcoidosis uveitis is the tendency to form adhesions causing bad pupil is expanded using medication, and this in turn leads to the development of secondary glaucoma
Secondary glaucoma - against the backdrop of another disease
- Increased intraocular pressure.
In the long sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis - how to protect themselves?
the eye can lead to the development of cataracts (cataract) and blindness. The disease can also spread to the conjunctiva, oculomotor muscle tissue located behind the eyeball, lacrimal glands, lining of the brain.
Front uevit (iridouiklit) caused by sarcoidosis, begins with watery eyes, redness of eyes, intolerance of bright light. While checking visual acuity revealed its decline. At the same time restore sight
How to restore vision - help their own eyes
using the plus or minus glass fails.
On examination also revealed sluggish pupil dilation - fully extend it is not possible even with atropita. When viewed from the eye can see thin spikes
Adhesions - how to get rid of them?
Which extend from the inner edge of the iris to the lens capsule. With light pressure on the eyeball patient feels pain and discomfort. Discomfort in the eyes of the majority of patients experiencing constant.
Rear uevit (choroiditis), if it is not combined with a front uevitom can manifest itself only by a decrease in visual acuity and visual fields violation. All changes in the choroid can be identified only by means of oftalnoskopii. At the same time the fundus can see signs of focal retinohorioidita - inflammation of the retina and choroid. In areas of inflammation at the same time developing specific granulomas.
Diagnosis and treatment
For the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis conduct multilateral ophthalmologic examination of patients. First performed ophthalmoscopy - fundus examination using an ophthalmoscope or a special lens. This allows you to assess the condition of the inner shells of the eye and the optic nerve.
There are also study histological tissue of the conjunctiva and lacrimal gland taken by biopsy.
For suspected ocular sarcoidosis conducted a full examination of the patient to identify sarkoidoznyh granulomas in other organs.
When detection of the disease is carried out using a complex treatment of local and systemic medications (mainly glucocorticoid hormones), symptomatic therapy. To date, the search for new effective treatments.