Macular degeneration - loss of vision possible

June 24, 2010

 retinal dystrophy
 The retina is a layer of light-sensitive tissue that is in the back of the eye. Retinal function is to convert light into electrical signals. These signals are then through the optic nerve to the brain for further interpretation.

 Macular degeneration - loss of vision possible

Macular degeneration - a general term that covers a wide range of retinal diseases that have similar symptoms. Macular degeneration can develop spontaneously, but more often it is inherited. Consequences of macular degeneration to view depend on the location and extent of damage to the retina. The most common types of macular degeneration:

  • Retinitis pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa - a term describing the set of congenital disorders that cause progressive loss of vision. This disorder occurs in about one of 3,000 people. As a rule, first child begins to complain about the deterioration of the night and peripheral vision at the age of about 10 years. However, the age of onset of symptoms can vary greatly depending on the type of retinitis pigmentosa. The disease progresses slowly over many years can disturb the color and central vision. The total loss of vision in patients with retinitis pigmentosa is very rare. One of the common forms of retinitis pigmentosa - Usher's syndrome - also accompanied by hearing loss.

  • Stargardt's disease

This disease can occur around the age of 6 years; As a rule, children complain of deterioration of central vision and problems with light eye. The prognosis of the disease Stargardt's poor; it is important as soon as possible to begin treatment to the child in the future could save more or less a normal quality of life.

  • Leber congenital amaurosis

This is a rare kind of macular degeneration, the symptoms of which usually appear after birth or during the first five months of life. Leber's congenital amaurosis affects one out of 80,000 children. For children with this disorder is characterized by poor vision and nystagmus - involuntary eye movement. It is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the coding system of one of the most important genes to the eye.

Although retinal dystrophy is a very serious violation, it does not always lead to blindness. Provided timely treatment, there is a substantial likelihood that the child will be able to maintain a normal life, in spite of his illness.

 Macular degeneration - loss of vision possible

How does the retina

Retina - is the internal coating of the eye, which is composed of a thin layer of neural cells. The retina is divided into front and rear part. The rear part of the retina is made up of nerve cells - photoreceptors that absorb light. Information from the photoreceptor in the form of nerve impulses along the optic nerve is transmitted to the central nervous system, where it is processed in the visual analyzer. The front part of the retina photoreceptor contains.

Thin retina consists of several layers of cells, the outermost of which (pigment) is closely linked to the average eye shell - vascular. In the center of the retina is the optic disc or blind spot (at this point there is no photoreceptors). Near optic disk is a yellow spot or macula is the central fovea in the middle - the place where the image is reflected the most efficiently, so the change in the area of ​​the retina in eye drops sharply, while changing the peripheral portions of the retina are narrowed visual field.

 Macular degeneration - loss of vision possible

As it emerges and develops retinal degeneration

Dystrophy - a process of tissue damage that occurs in the cells for metabolic disorders and is characterized by the appearance of the products of metabolism in tissues, changed qualitatively or quantitatively. Causes dystrophy different. This disorder of blood circulation, lymph circulation, innervation, various infections, intoxication, hormonal background, excess or deficiency of enzymes, genetic factors, and so on. As a result of these or other reasons, the power is disrupted cells, and thus the fabric, which is formed from these cells.

The cause of macular degeneration is most often the violation blood supply its cells. This is very typical for the elderly, but may also occur in young people, for example, severe myopia, which leads to an increase in the transverse dimension of the eye and increased pressure on the membrane of the eye. Contributing factors to the development of macular degeneration are nearsightedness, pregnancy, diabetes, Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease  Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
 , Smoking and old age.

Macular degeneration can begin after an eye injury, against a background of various long flowing diseases of the cardiovascular system and kidneys, accompanied by high blood pressure, improve the function of the thyroid gland The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones  The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
   and so on. Any infection or poisoning, which is accompanied by a high intoxication, also can give complication of the retina.

 Macular degeneration - loss of vision possible

Types and symptoms

Macular degeneration can be central and peripheral. Central retinal dystrophy occurs in the macula - the place most clearly visible. The cause of the disease most often changes vascular age-related eye.

The disease develops slowly, while gradually decreasing visual acuity, especially at close range. Total blindness usually does not occur unless the peripheral portions of the retina affected. Signs of central retinal degeneration is the contortion of image, affectation lines, double objects stains before the eye. Central retinal dystrophy has two forms:

  • dry form - is the accumulation of metabolic products between the retina and choroid in the form of tubercles; this type of dystrophy is the most common and occurs relatively favorable, with reduced vision is slow;
  • wet form - this accumulation of fluid in the area of ​​the retina or the blood that propotevayut through the walls of blood vessels; This heavier type of dystrophy, in which the possible sharp enough (a few days or weeks), blurred vision.

Peripheral retinal dystrophy can occur completely transparent and only occasionally see patients "flies" and light flashes before his eyes. There are several types of peripheral retinal degeneration, but to see and distinguish between them only in an eye exam.

 Macular degeneration - loss of vision possible

Diagnosis and treatment of retinal dystrophy

To identify retinal dystrophy patient undergoes a complete eye examination (including a study of the fundus), ultrasound of the eye, electrophysiological study (it can be used to determine the functional state of the nerve cells of the retina and optic nerve), laboratory tests (they say about the state of metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
   in the body).

In the initial stages of the disease is carried out medical treatment to strengthen and expand the blood vessels in the eye and improve tissue metabolism. For this purpose, appointed by the vitamin-mineral complexes and a variety of drugs that improve blood circulation.

Furthermore, various methods are conducted stimulation of metabolic processes in the tissues of the retina (for example, using intravenous blood laser irradiation, etc.), operations to improve the blood supply to retinal tissue. When wet forms of macular degeneration of the central conducting operations to prevent the accumulation of fluid in the retina. The latest achievement in this field is the implantation of "energy" magnetic implants in the posterior pole of the eye - it allows you to suspend the degenerative process in the tissues of the eye.

Macular degeneration - this is serious, it can lead to thinning of severe complications - retinal detachment Retinal detachment - it is not necessary to delay the operation  Retinal detachment - it is not necessary to delay the operation
   and loss of vision.

Galina Romanenko

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  • retina