Night blindness, or in a scientific day-blindness - a disease in which a person is sharply reduced ability to see at night. With this unpleasant disease can face each day-blindness equally affects both men and women. Night blindness can be caused by hereditary factors, or be symptomatic acquired character. In any case, the disease greatly reduces the quality of life and poses a risk to human health, and sometimes may even lead to blindness.
- The lack of vitamin A. This vitamin (retinol) is essential to the retina.
- Anemia, general exhaustion, liver disease or related eye diseases.
- Transferred infections (rubella, herpes, measles), menopause in women, and even unbalanced diet.
The retina contains special light-sensitive cells - the "stick" by which a person can see in the twilight, and "cones", which provide color perception during the day. The rod-shaped cells is of particular visual pigment rhodopsin, which allows a person to adapt to the dark. In violation of the ratio of these cells and the lack of development of rhodopsin develop night blindness as a result of which the patient sees well during the day, but very poorly versed in the dusk and dark.
Types of night blindness
Ophthalmologists are three types of the disease: congenital, essential and symptomatic.
- Congenital day-blindness is hereditary and manifests itself already in childhood or adolescence. Congenital night blindness is not treatable.
- Symptomatic day-blindness may develop on the background of high myopia and other eye diseases - cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy, retinal detachment. Night blindness may cause atrophy of the optic nerve or radiation burns the eyes.
- Essential day-blindness is manifested in strong deficiency in the body of vitamins A, PP, B2. Status of beriberi is caused by various diseases - diabetes, alcoholism, disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.
- Reduced night vision and low light
- Inability to navigate in space at dusk
- Difficulty distinguishing colors (especially blue and yellow)
- The appearance of colored spots before your eyes when you exit out of the darkness into the light
- A significant narrowing of the visual field
- Burning and dryness in the eyes
Night blindness gives the patient a lot of inconvenience. In the presence of the disease can not receive a driving license. Disturbed perception of color, poor people oriented in space and lost in low-light conditions.
For the prevention of night blindness is very important consumption of foods rich in vitamin A. Most of it is contained in carrots, apricots, peaches, spinach, green salad, gooseberries, tomatoes.
Be sure to use butter, egg yolk, cheese, blueberries
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and black currants. Vitamin A rich beef liver, cod liver oil
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Care must be taken to protect the retina of the eye. Do not operate the computer in the dark, you need to rest your eyes from harmful radiation every forty minutes. To protect against infrared radiation is recommended to use sunglasses.
At the initial stage of night blindness prohibit the use of fluorescent lamps in the home. Children with mild illness should wear sunglasses at night. In the winter time to avoid being dazzled by reflected light is recommended to use glasses with a UV filter.
Treatment for night blindness and its consequences
When the first symptoms of the disease and night blindness is suspected, consult an ophthalmologist for further diagnosis. The disease is treatable, if the time to find its causes. If time is lost, the disease will progress, and the ability to see in the dark may be permanently lost.
In childhood, in the absence of timely treatment, the disease can lead to blindness. In adults, symptoms night blindness is not so dangerous, but when the disease is limited peripheral vision. People suffering from this disease, often become participants in road accidents.
Patients suspected of night blindness is directed to the survey, which will help to identify and eliminate the cause of the disease. If night blindness is caused by various diseases, it is necessary first of all to treat these diseases (diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, infections).
Unfortunately, congenital night blindness caused by hereditary diseases, incurable. At night blindness caused by severe myopia, pick glasses, contact lenses or recommend laser vision correction. If diseases such as glaucoma
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surgery is indicated.
Treatment of night blindness in the first place requires a complete and balanced diet.
The daily menu of the patient must be present products with a high content of carotene and retinol (cheese, dairy products, butter, egg yolk, carrots, spinach, tomatoes, berries, cod liver oil). The patient was prescribed vitamin eye drops, receiving the necessary vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin A, B2, PP, nicotinic acid). The required dosage selects the doctor depending on the patient's age.
Essential day-blindness is well treated, night vision, as a rule, it is completely restored. Forecast symptomatic form of night blindness will depend on the severity of the underlying disease. In any case, you must seek help. Making timely treatment will improve your quality of life and help stop the disease, or get rid of it forever.
Principles of treatment depending on the cause
Treatment for night blindness depends on the reasons causing it. Night blindness may be just the tip of the iceberg, a symptom of a much more serious disease. Congenital day-blindness treatment can not be. When symptomatic treatment of night blindness appoint the underlying disease.
- Night blindness caused by myopia
Myopia, or nearsightedness - one of the common causes of night blindness. Myopia is caused by the refractive system of the eye has an increased optical power and too much focus. Therefore objects that are far appear blurred, and one badly sees objects in poorly lit areas. For correction of night blindness caused by myopia, we recommend the wearing of glasses or contact lenses. In some cases refractive surgery.
- Night blindness, drug-induced glaucoma
Glaucoma - is an eye disorder characterized by periodic or permanent increase of intraocular pressure with the development of the visual field defects, reduced vision, and optic nerve atrophy. Medicines for glaucoma can cause constriction of the pupil, which results in night blindness, because of the decrease in pupil size decreases the amount of incident light. In this case, we recommend the replacement of the glaucoma medication.
- Night blindness, cause cataracts
Cataracts - an eye disease associated with progressive clouding of the lens of the eye and cause a variety of visual disturbances, including night blindness. The only way to treat night blindness in this case - the surgical removal of cataracts, which allows you to completely eliminate the problem of night blindness.
- Night blindness caused by pigmentary retinal dystrophy
Pigmentary retinal dystrophy - a genetic disease characterized by the destruction of the rods and cones in the retina of the eye and often leads to night blindness. Progression of the disease leads to complete loss of vision. This disease can not be completely cured, but may slow its progression. For this administered vitamin A and an operation is performed. In the future, possible transplantation of the retina.
- Night blindness caused by vitamin A deficiency
Lack of vitamin A in the body - one of the main causes night blindness. In this case, treatment of night blindness based on increasing the intake of vitamin A, especially in the food composition. For the prevention and treatment of night blindness need to consume carrots, cabbage, citrus fruits, various juices and, necessarily, the liver of fish, or different animals.
- Night blindness caused by diabetes
Night blindness may also be due to abnormally high levels of sugar in the blood, ie diabetes. One of the main symptoms of diabetes in the severe stage of a complete loss of vision. Early diagnosis of diabetes and early treatment, such as insulin therapy, can reduce the symptoms of the disease, including a further deterioration of vision. In this case, patients prescribed wearing glasses and sometimes surgery is performed to correct vision.