Citramon - Instructions: apply for headache

October 24, 2011

 Citramon - guide
 Citramon relates to medicines without prescription. This means that the patient can take his own, but in this case it should clearly know the mechanism of action of this drug and its side effects as possible complications from such treatment will depend on the patient.

 Citramon - Instructions: apply for headache

The mechanism of action tsitramona

Citramon (P tsitramon correct as tsitramon, which included a phenacetin, is no longer available, replaced by paracetamol) - a combination drug that has analgesic, antipyretic and light light-inflammatory action. All these properties are due to members of the tsitramona drugs.

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) - is the first drug belonging to the group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), it is very well studied and is known as its positive and negative characteristics. The positive properties include analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties, in addition, it improves blood circulation in the inflammation. Negative properties of aspirin - the ability to irritate the stomach lining, and lowering of blood clotting. The latter property is not always considered to be negative, since aspirin is often prescribed for the prevention of blood clots.

Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. Under the influence of caffeine occurs general stimulation of the physical and psychological state (reduces fatigue, increases efficiency), dilation of blood vessels in skeletal muscles and internal organs (heart, kidneys) and the acceleration of blood flow in the area. At the same time the blood vessels of the abdominal organs (except kidney) and brain are narrowed, so the caffeine has a positive effect in migraine (headache associated with a sharp expansion of blood vessels of the brain). Caffeine increases the analgesic effect of aspirin, so often used in drug combination. Caffeine reduces the ability of platelet aggregation (bonding and formation of blood clots).

Paracetamol - a drug very popular today, which, however, has both positive and negative characteristics. It has analgesic, antipyretic (direct effects on the thermoregulatory center in the brain) and a light-inflammatory action (by inhibiting the synthesis of basic substances involved in the inflammatory response - prostaglandins). Of the negative properties of paracetamol is the most dangerous of its toxic effect on the cells of the liver (hepatotoxicity).

 Citramon - Instructions: apply for headache

Indications and contraindications for use tsitramona

Citramon used short courses of treatment or disposable at moderate pain of various origins. In most cases it is used for headache, including migraines (with it often hurts half head), toothache Toothache - itself does not take place  Toothache - itself does not take place
 , Pains in muscles and joints, not too intense pain along the nerve (neuralgia), pain during menstruation. When pain take 1 - 2 tablets but up to four tablets per day. The maximum daily dose - 8 tablets.

At high temperatures tsitramon used with caution and not more than three consecutive days, especially in viral infections, in this case more appropriate clean paracetamol.

Contraindications tsitramon case of hypersensitivity to the drug (most often gives allergic reactions aspirin), gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers, bleeding from the stomach and intestines, reduced blood clotting, deficiencies of vitamin A (it is responsible for the clotting of the blood), severe liver disease and kidney with a violation of their function, high blood and intraocular pressure, severe coronary heart disease, elevated anxiety and insomnia, certain enzyme disorders (deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), pregnancy, especially in the I (first 12 weeks) and in the III (after 24 weeks) trimester, the baby feeding Breastfeeding - a personal choice  Breastfeeding - a personal choice
   feeding. In children (under 15 years) tsitramon can not be taken because of the possibility of severe complications from liver and brain (Reye's syndrome).

Tsitramon C care should be used to treat gout Gout - the "disease of kings"  Gout - the "disease of kings"
   and if any liver diseases.

 Citramon - Instructions: apply for headache

Side effects that may occur while taking tsitramona

When receiving tsitramona may experience the following side effects: nausea, vomiting, pain in the upper abdomen or the right hypochondrium, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, severe allergic reactions (including bronchospasm). Children may develop Reye's syndrome: fever, vomiting, severe complications from liver and brain.

Chronic administration can disturb tsitramona persistent dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
 , Headache, visual and hearing impairment, increased bleeding (nosebleeds, bleeding gums), severe kidney damage.

Despite the fact that tsitramon available over the counter without a prescription, it is not entirely harmless drug, and it should be taken with caution.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • tsitramon

Baralgin: anesthetic

April 24, 2011

  • Baralgin: anesthetic
  • Mechanism of action
  • Side effects
  • Baralgin and alcohol

 Baralgin - a strong analgesic and antipyretic. Its active component is the metamizol, a substance that is also part of dipyrone.


History of discovery baralgina

Metamizole was first synthesized in Germany in 1920, and went to the public in 1922. It is freely sold and widely used in many countries until 1970 when it was discovered that it is taking this drug can cause agranulocytosis - a potentially fatal disease. Scientists still have not come to a consensus as to how big the risk to people taking baralgin.

However, in some countries the sale of the drug at this time is completely prohibited, and where is he listed as a prescription drug and is assigned only when there is no safer alternatives. However, in many countries, both in Russia and baralgin and other drugs, which is the active substance metamizole is still sold without prescription.


What is the danger baralgina?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) for every two million patients taking baralgin or other preparations containing metamozol account for 0.2-2 cases of agranulocytosis; 7% of these cases are fatal (it is assumed that all patients are able to receive emergency medical care).

In other words, in a country of 150 million people by the application of baralgina may die from 30 to 300 people - if every citizen receives baralgin not less frequently than once a month. This is not a very high mortality rate compared to some other medications. For example, it was found that medical drug clozapine can cause agranulocytosis 50 times more often than baralgin. But this - the results of new research. In less recent data based on which Baralginum was banned, with the risk of its reception is much higher, but for OTC is too great, especially in comparison with a significantly safer alternatives, such as aspirin and ibuprofen.

Many scientists believe that in the seventies, the risk of use baralgina been seriously exaggerated by the use of inaccurate or irrelevant research methods. At the same time, scientists from Sweden a few years ago made the assumption that the WHO data underestimate the risks associated with the use of this medication.


Baralgin banned?

To date, the sale baralgina completely banned in more than thirty countries, including Japan, the United States and some countries of the European Union. There, it can still be used as a veterinary drug. In Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal and Spain baralgin can be bought only on prescription. Baralgin remains OTC drug, apart from Russia, Bulgaria, Mexico, Brazil, Poland, Turkey, Macedonia, Romania, Israel and in some developing countries. In Russia, 80% of all sold painkillers accounted for baralgin, analgin and other medications containing metamizol (compared to ibuprofen Ibuprofen: anti-inflammatory drug  Ibuprofen: anti-inflammatory drug
   accounted for only 2.5% of sales).

Baralgin - effective analgesic and its popularity can not be considered unreasonable. The risk of dangerous complications in patients taking its minimal. It generally well tolerated. Its side effects are digestive disorders (nausea, vomiting, stomach pain Pain in the stomach when the body asks for help  Pain in the stomach when the body asks for help
 Diarrhea), headaches and dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
 , skin rash. Among the very rare side effects baralgina: hepatic and renal dysfunction (chronic interstitial nephritis and renal papillary necrosis), diffuse toxic skin necrosis and anaphylactic shock Anaphylaxis: a gun on sparrows  Anaphylaxis: a gun on sparrows