Antidepressants - is medications used in the treatment of depression
Treatment of depression - pills needed
. They increase the concentration of one or more views of neurotransmitters - the chemicals with which to communicate between the brain and nerves. Different classes of antidepressant drugs act on different neurotransmitters. Since there is no sufficient evidence that some antidepressants are more effective than others in the choice of the drug for the treatment of a doctor, as a rule, it takes into account the side effects and drug interactions of medicines.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
Antibiotics in this class have been invented first. Recently, they rarely write out all of the not yet confirmed the suspicion that they interact with certain foods and many medicines.
MAO inhibitors increase levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin by blocking the activity of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. This enzyme breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine, and its activity is inhibited when the concentration of these chemicals in the brain is increased.
Monoamine oxidase also has the ability to break down tyramine, a chemical that is found mainly in the old wine and cheese. Under the influence of MAO inhibitors, tyramine levels in the body may increase, causing a hypertensive crisis. Before taking MAO inhibitors, patients are advised to make changes in your diet to reduce the intake of tyramine.
MAO inhibitors is not recommended to be taken with other drugs that increase serotonin activity, for example:
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (eg fluoxetine and sertraline).
- Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and serotonin, for example, venlafaxine and desvenlafaksin.
- Tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine.
- Hypericum and preparations to which it includes
- Tramadol (Ultram),
- Propoxyphene (Darvon)
Simultaneous intake of these drugs and MAO inhibitors can cause complications such as confusion, tremors, hyperactivity, coma and death.
MAO inhibitors and vasoconstrictor drugs (eg, epinephrine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, phenylephrine) may increase blood pressure to dangerous levels. Linezolid (Zyvox) also can not be taken with MAO inhibitors - this antibiotic also blocks the activity of monoamine oxidase.
MAO inhibitors must complete at least two weeks before the start of the drugs that interact with them. If the patient is taking fluoxetine, you must wait 5 weeks before you start taking MAO inhibitors.
MAO inhibitors can cause headaches and insomnia; with constant use, these symptoms become weaker. Side effects of these drugs can also increase the weight of life, erectile dysfunction, edema.
The first drug in the class of tricyclic antidepressants - imipramine, have begun to use the mid-twentieth century. Tricyclic antidepressants increase the levels of norepinephrine and, to a lesser extent, serotonin. Some tricyclic antidepressants are also as antihistamines or anticholinergics (block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine). Thus, these drugs can be used not only for the treatment of depression
Depression - a little more than a bad mood
Tricyclic antidepressants may block the antihypertensive effect of clonidine (Catapres); their simultaneous use can be very dangerous.
In combination with drugs such as disopyramide (Norpace), pimozide (Orap), procainamide (Pronestyl, Procan SR, Procanbid) tricyclic antidepressants may cause serious disruption of the heart.
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) splits tricyclic antidepressants and reduce their effectiveness.
How do antidepressants?
The action of most antidepressants is based on slowing the removal of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are needed for normal brain function. Antidepressants keep these substances in the brain for a longer time.
How long should I take antidepressants?
Generally, antidepressants must be taken for about 4 - 6 months. In some severe cases, doctors recommend taking antidepressants for a long time.
What types of antidepressants exist?
Antidepressants accepted conditionally divided into groups according to the chemical to which they affect (pharmacodynamic principle). There are several different types of antidepressants, including:
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- citalopram (brand name: Celexa)
- eskitalopram (trade name: Lexapro)
- fluoxetine (brand name: Prozac)
- paroxetine (brand name: Paxil, Pexeva)
- sertraline (brand name: Zoloft)
Side effects of these drugs are insignificant compared to the side effects of other antidepressants. Here are some side effects of selective inhibitors of serotonin reuptake: dry mouth, nausea, nervousness, insomnia, sexual dysfunction and headache.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
- amitriptyline (brand name: Elavil)
- desipramine (brand name: Norpramin)
- imipramine (brand name: Tofranil)
- nortriptyline (brand name: Aventyl, Pamelor)
The most common side effects of tricyclic antidepressants: dry mouth, loss of clarity of vision, diarrhea, pain when urinating, worsening of glaucoma
Glaucoma - a perspective possible blindness
, Disturbances in thinking and fatigue. These antidepressants also affect blood pressure and heart rate.
Reuptake inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine
- venlafaxine (brand name: Effexor)
- Duloxetine (brand name: Cymbalta)
The most common side effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine nausea, loss of appetite, anxiety
Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?
and nervousness, headache, insomnia and fatigue. It is also not excluded dry mouth, diarrhea, weight loss, sexual problems, increased heart rate and increased cholesterol levels in the blood.
Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and dopamine
- bupropion (brand name: Wellbutrin)
The most common side effects of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and dopamine: agitation, nausea, headache, loss of appetite and insomnia. Some people are not excluded as a rise in blood pressure.
Combined reuptake and receptor blockers
- trazodone (brand name: Desyrel)
- nefazodone (brand name: Serzone)
- mirtazpin (trade name: Remeron)
The most common side effects reuptake inhibitors and receptor blockers: drowsiness, dry mouth, nausea and dizziness. Nefazodone is contraindicated in people with kidney disease. Maprotiline is contraindicated in patients with epilepsy.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- isocarboxazid (brand name: Marplan)
- phenelzine (brand name: Nardil)
- tranylcypromine (brand name: Parnate)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are less common than other antidepressants
. They also can have serious side effects, including weakness, dizziness, headaches and tremors
. The combination of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressants or other medications against colds and flu, which are sold without prescription, can cause dangerous reactions
. Prescribing an antidepressant, the doctor should tell you what foods and alcoholic beverages can not be used while taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor
. This medicine may be taken only if you are willing to carefully follow your doctor's recommendations regarding the supply restrictions
. If you are taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and the doctor wants to change the appointment and prescribe another antidepressant, then first you have to stop taking the medicine first, and only after a while start to accept second
. This is the time you need to monoamine oxidase inhibitor completely out of the body
How antidepressants interact with other medications?
Antidepressants come in strong interactions with other medications. Before taking an antidepressant, tell your doctor about all the medicines you are taking, including harmless drugs, nonprescription, and herbal medicines. Be sure to ask your doctor about the possible consequences of interaction with antidepressants medications that you regularly take.