Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code

December 6, 2013

 Emotion - this is one of the varieties of emotional processes, which is an expression of man's relationship to real or hypothetical events. Emotions are changing faster moods and feelings, they can be quite intense, but not the same as the affects; a person can hide their emotions, and their behavior is not subject to them - the presence of a sufficiently high level of self-control.

The modern theory of evolution maintains that different emotions have evolved at different times. Basically, the original emotions, such as fear associated with the most ancient parts of the brain - perhaps they could already feel the ancestors of primates. More "new" emotions, such as love of a mother to the children, seem to have developed the first primates. Although sometimes they seem irrational to us, all human emotions contributed to its survival and increase adaptability.


Four theories of emotion

Philosophers, doctors, psychologists, many centuries ago, arguing about the nature of emotions. During this time, a host of theories, but the most famous are currently the following theory of emotions:

  • The theory of James - Lange. The authors of this theory are William James and Carl Lange. Although they developed the theory independently of each other, it so happened that the same idea came into their heads about the same time - in the years 1884-1887. According to this theory, the emotions are not caused by direct perception of the event, and the body's reaction to it. This means - that there was an emotion must first be a physical reaction (eg, shortness of breath, rapid pulse, sweating of palms). Only after such reactions occur, there emotion. For example, if you see a big dog that barks at you, and is not on a leash, your heart starts to beat faster. Noticing this, the brain realizes that you feel fear, and then you begin to realize that emotion. All this happens in a split second, but on the theory of James - Lange, bodily reaction is still primary.
  • Theory Cannon - Bard began with the work of Walter Cannon, published in 1927, in which he argued that the theory of James - Lange is incorrect for several reasons .  During his experiments, he found that some animals, for example, cats, emotions arise, even if the brain is not able to receive information on the physical reactions .  He also stressed that the same bodily reactions may be accompanied by various emotions .  For example, the increase in heart rate can occur when a person is angry, afraid, or when he was very pleased .  According to Walter Cannon, it means that the brain does not rely only on the bodily reactions to understand what emotion we feel (that is, there must be something else that indicates that a person is angry or pleased) .  Philip Bard agreed with Cannon and continued to study the links between the brain and emotions .  Eventually they came to the conclusion that emotions do not depend on how it is on these or other events reacts body: the emotions and bodily reactions occur simultaneously and independently from each other .
  • Two-factor theory of emotions. Many years later, two psychologists Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed a different theory. They suggested that the need for the emergence of emotions and reactions of the organism, and the interpretation of the reaction to the particular situation in which a person is at the moment. That is, if your heart beats quickened and you pursue alligator brain interprets it as fear. If the heart beats often when you see a loved one, it is interpreted as joy. Although the reaction of the body are the same, a person can experience very different emotions, depending on the situation and their own attitude to it (some people bring joy to dangerous and extreme situations that have most cause only fear).
  • The theory of the opposition process was developed by psychologists Richard Solomon and John Korbitom .  It is very different from other theories, and explains the origin of emotions, giving the key importance of their opposites .  Richard Solomon and John Korb suggested that the experience of emotion disturbs the equilibrium in the body, and that all of our basic emotions there are conflicting emotions .  For example, the opposite of pleasure is pain (not physical), the opposite of fear - a relief, depression opposite feeling of elation, etc. .  According to the theory of Solomon - Korbita when we feel one emotion, it suppresses the opposite emotion .  After the first emotion weakens, the second emotion - its opposite - naturally balances first .  For example, you feel fear when the bungee jump from and after the jump, you find yourself on the ground, he was replaced by relief comes, then you calm down - an equilibrium between emotions .  This theory is often used to explain drug dependence .  Drugs cause a strong pleasure - such emotion is difficult or almost impossible to get without them .  To balance strong emotions, we need equally strong opposing emotions .  Contrary strong emotions makes people keen desire to take the drug again, to come out of this state, and re-experience the euphoria .  Over time a person begins to use drugs more and more in ever larger doses, and there is a cycle of addiction from which he can not get out without help .

Article Tags:
  • psychological help

Treatment of depression - pills needed

October 5, 2006

  • Treatment of depression - pills needed
  • Treatment of severe depression

 treatment of depression
   Once diagnosed with "depression", the doctor will offer you a variety of treatment options. Selection of the most suitable methods for the treatment of depression is dependent on the type of depression and general health. For example, some patients suffering from clinical depression, psychotherapy is recommended, as well as the use of antidepressants and other prescribed antidepressants only. It is also possible the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), or so-called electroconvulsive therapy. This procedure is recommended in those instances where traditional therapies were ineffective depression.

Whatever the treatment of depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood  Depression - a little more than a bad mood
   not prescribed by a doctor, it is important to understand that no treatment will give instant results. You may have to try several antidepressants to find the most appropriate drug for you. Furthermore, to realize an antidepressant is effective or not, it should be taken for several weeks. Therefore, it is important to remain patient and not lose heart. Trust your doctor and his medical decisions - this will help you find an option to treat depression that is right for you.

 Treatment of depression - pills needed

What are antidepressants?

Antidepressants - psychotropic drugs, uplifting and relieves anxiety Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?  Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?
 . Antidepressants help fight causeless sadness and despair who feel depressed patients. Unlike benzodiazepine tranquilizers, antidepressants are not addictive, and withdrawal of, and have few side effects.

 Treatment of depression - pills needed

How do antidepressants?

It is believed that depression is caused by a decrease in the concentration of the three neurotransmitters in the synapses of the brain: norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. Neurotransmitters act as intermediary in the transmission of electrical signals (information) between the neurons of the brain. Antidepressants regulate the concentration of one or more of these mediators and adjusting mechanisms of the brain, which have been violated as a result of depression.

 Treatment of depression - pills needed

Which group of antidepressants exist?

There are several groups of antidepressants:

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (RSSI). RSSI block reuptake (reuptake) of serotonin, thereby increasing the concentration of this mediator. Inhibitors affect serotonin without affecting other neurotransmitters therefore hardly cause side effects. This group includes fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), fluvoxamine (duvoks) and sertraline (Zoloft).
  • Reuptake inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine (SNRI). SNRIs increase the concentration of serotonin and norepinephrine, are characterized by minimal side effects and good tolerability. By IOZNS include venlafaxine (velaksin), duloxetine (Cymbalta), milnacipran (Ixel).
  • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). TCAs increase the brain concentration of serotonin and noradrenaline by reducing the absorption of neurons. Tricyclic antidepressants operates faster than other groups of drugs, but have more side effects. As a rule, they are administered when other antidepressants have failed.
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). IMOA prevents the action of the enzyme monoamine oxidase contained in the nerve endings. This enzyme breaks down neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine. MAOIs are the main feniuzin, tranylcypromine and isocarboxazid. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are administered in the last turn, when all other treatments have failed. MAOIs interact with the substances contained in certain foods (cheese, wine) and medicines, so taking MAOIs should be accompanied by a strict diet.

There antidepressants that do not belong to any of the groups described as different from them as the chemical composition and mechanism of action.

 Treatment of depression - pills needed

Why is the treatment of depression is prescribed stimulants?

Sometimes together with antidepressants or stimulant prescribed anti-anxiety drugs, especially if the patient, apart from depression, there is both a mental illness Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?  Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
 . But these drugs are not effective in treating depression when taken without antidepressants.

 Treatment of depression - pills needed

What is the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of depression?

The essence of psychotherapy in the treatment of depression is to teach the patient to recognize and manage their emotions Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code  Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code
   and feelings. This ability will help the patient to deal with daily stress and strengthen the action of medications. There are several types of psychotherapy, such as individual, family or group. Your doctor will help you choose the most suitable option for you.