Osteoporosis - a disease from the group osteochondropathy that weakens the bone so that over time, the bones become fragile and very susceptible to fractures. Patients with osteoporotic fractures are particularly common hip, spine and wrist. Although osteoporosis can occur in almost anyone, it is most common in older women.
As a rule, osteoporosis without developing any symptoms and diagnosed after the patient enters the hospital with a fractured. Frequent fractures in the elderly are often a sign of osteoporosis. If you are over fifty years old and have had at least one fracture as a result of a seemingly minor injury, you need to pass a special examination for the detection of osteoporosis.
Some patients may be unaware that they already have one or more fractures in the spine - with a few cracks in it people could continue to live their normal lives. Reduced growth for more than 3-4 cm, may be the first indication that there are cracks in the spine caused by osteoporosis
Osteoporosis - he threatens you?
. They may cause a curvature of the spine, deteriorating posture, back pain.
Osteoporosis can not be cured completely, and the main purpose of the treatment of patients with this disease is to prevent fractures. A balanced diet rich in calcium, adequate intake of vitamin D, exercise caution and respect for the immediate prevention of situations that can lead to fractures, are very important for maintaining bone health. Furthermore, in the treatment of osteoporosis can be used some drugs.
Bisphosphonates - a class of drugs that inhibit bone loss and reduce the risk of fracture, in some cases, increase bone density.
- Alendronate - oral formulation in the form of tablets or liquid, daily or weekly dose which is used to treat post-menopausal women and men.
- Ibandronate take a tablet once a month, or once in three month is administered intravenously. It is used to treat post-menopausal women.
- Risedronate is assigned to men and women. It is administered in tablet form daily, weekly, twice or once a month.
- Zoledronic acid. This drug is injected once or twice a year.
Side effects. Oral bisphosphonates are the most common cause nausea, heartburn and stomach pain. Improper reception, they can cause serious digestive problems. Some patients taking these drugs observed sore muscles, bones and joints. Among the side effects of intravenous bisphosphonates - fever, pain in muscles and joints, headaches. These symptoms usually disappear after a few days after injection. In rare cases, people taking bisphosphonates, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and there are unusual fractures of the thigh bone.
Estrogen is used to treat menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis in women. Since the results of scientific studies suggest that in women taking estrogen increases the risk of breast cancer, stroke, blood clots and heart attack, doctors recommend patients to prescribe the lowest possible dose of estrogen and the best possible treatment, short course. Treatment of estrogen
Estrogen - the key to bone health
It should be prescribed only to women with a significant risk of osteoporosis, and in all cases must first be considered the possibility of treatment without the use of estrogen.
Raloxifene - antiestrogen or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), a non-hormonal drug that has the effect of estrogen on bone, but blocks the effects of estrogen in the breast and uterus. This drug slows bone loss and reduces the risk of vertebral fractures, but has no effect on the fractures of the femur. Its side effects are hot flashes and increased risk of blood clots in some women.
- Calcitonin is available in the form of a nasal spray or injection, approved as a drug for the treatment of osteoporosis in women whose menopause at least five years ago. This drug is a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
It slows bone loss and reduces the likelihood of fracture of the spine
Fracture of the spine - how to get out with minimal losses?
. He has no serious side effects.
- Teriparatide - form of human parathyroid hormone, which stimulates new bone formation. Daily injections within 24 months to increase bone density, strengthen bones and reduce the risk of fractures. Teriparatide is assigned to people at very high risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. Side effects of this drug may be leg cramps and dizziness.
- Denosumab - a drug that is prescribed to women after menopause. Injections do denosumab every six months.