- Removal of inguinal hernia - all features of the procedure
People suffering from inguinal hernia and the other at all times - at least, mention of them and describing the operation to remove them found in written sources of the reign of Hammurabi and papyrus scrolls of ancient Egypt. Today the removal of inguinal hernia - one of the most common surgeries in the world, which is carried out not only to adults but also, often, very young children.
Preparing to remove an inguinal hernia
Before the surgery, the patient should inform the doctor if he ever had an allergic reaction to any substance, if he takes medication, blood thinners, or other means that may affect blood clotting, as well as other drugs, including - OTC analgesics, eye drops, herbs, or dietary supplements
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. Doctors also need to know if the patient ever had a negative reaction to the anesthesia, if it has a history of thrombosis
Thrombosis - the cause of heart attack and stroke
or other disorders associated with blood clotting, if he made any previous surgery. Finally, be sure to inform the doctor about his bad habits and existing chronic diseases.
As a rule, two weeks before the operation will be carried out on an inguinal hernia - no matter what method of removing it to be used - doctors recommend to stop taking NSAIDs and vitamin E. Those who are taking anticoagulants should consult both with the appointing their physician and surgeon - they decide when to stop taking the drug.
If the operation will be performed under general anesthesia, at least eight hours before its start you can not eat or drink. Sometimes, patients are asked to take a shower before surgery using antibacterial soap.
Go for an operation, it is desirable in clothes that will be easy to put on after its completion, when the most simple movements will be given a little more difficult than usual.
Most patients with rare exceptions, are issued only a few hours after the removal of an inguinal hernia, but that does not mean that your body will function as usual
. Because of the use of general anesthesia will be weakened concentration and the reaction rate is lowered, so within days after surgery can not get behind the wheel
. Undesirable as unaccompanied navigate busy streets, especially in areas where pedestrian crossings are not installed traffic lights
. Go home on foot, unless you live very close to the hospital, too, should not - although patients can normally walk in the day of the operation, they should not go for long walks
. It is best to ask someone from the family members that they took you home from the hospital; people who live alone, it is advisable to ask someone to stay with them at least one night after the operation - in case (fortunately unlikely), if there are serious complications
Methods for the removal of inguinal hernia
- Open surgery to remove a hernia
To carry out such an operation can be used spinal anesthesia (a type of local anesthesia) or general anesthesia (general anesthesia). When using spinal anesthesia, the patient remains conscious but does not feel pain in the lower body. In addition to this anesthesia can be used sedatives - they help a person to relax and have surgery. Usually, local anesthesia is subject to the removal of small and uncomplicated inguinal hernias. Very often such anesthetic is used for the treatment of inguinal hernia
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the elderly, and in patients with severe cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. But the treatment of even small inguinal hernias in children often prefer anesthesia - this is due to the fact that the small patients more difficult to stay calm and stillness than adults, and this can interfere with the normal course of operations.
When the anesthesia takes effect, the surgeon with a scalpel makes an incision in the lower abdomen. Reduce a hernia through a hole in the abdominal wall. Thereafter, the surgeon can simply sew up the hole in the muscle tissue, but more often it put "patch" of a special soft, but durable material. It serves as a sort of scaffolding around which gradually formed a new, durable fabric. (Of course, unlike these scaffolds, the tissue is not removed - it is part of the abdominal wall).
In the past, the so-called mesh implants can be made of metals such as silver (silver yarn) or stainless steel. Today commonly used grids made from polypropylene and other synthetic materials. One of the latest inventions in the field - the use of nets with a skeleton made of nitinol; these prostheses stronger than conventional synthetic mesh, and easier to fix.
Sometimes, for some time after the operation has to use a catheter to withdraw fluid that can accumulate in the weld area. This usually occurs after removing neobhodimos large inguinal hernias.
- Removal of inguinal hernia laparoscopy
Laparoscopy - a type of endoscopy, the method used for the inspection and operation of the internal organs through small cuts or punctures in the skin. The widespread use of laparoscopy
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Hernia began in the 1990s, when he became a rapidly growing interest in this method and the results were published a number of studies showing the benefits of laparoscopic surgery to open surgery. However, endoscopic removal of an inguinal hernia is still not become a means of first choice in the treatment of hernias. This operation is performed only under general anesthesia, it is more expensive and takes longer than an open herniorrhaphy; besides, it is somewhat more likely to cause complications, in particular, the re-formation of inguinal hernia. Another serious problem is that not all hospitals have surgeons with a large enough experience in laparoscopic surgery. According to rough estimates, laparoscopy is currently only 15% of the disposal operations of inguinal hernias.
To perform this operation using a laparoscope - a tube with a diameter of ten millimeters (less often used more subtle laparoscopy, the diameter of which is only five millimeters), which is a small camera and a light bulb. A laparoscope and instruments that are used directly for the operation, is introduced through the incisions, the length of which corresponds to the diameter of the tool. Laparoscopy allows you to do all the same thing as open surgery - to the right a hernia, hernial sew or strengthen the abdominal wall by means of a mesh material. However, it is not suitable for the removal of large hernias - in their treatment are usually held open surgery.