- Vaccination against human papilloma virus - the purpose and need for vaccination
- Questions and answers
Scientists believe that vaccination against human papilloma virus can reduce the number of deaths among patients with this disease, at least half, and greatly reduce the number of cases.
Today in some countries, vaccination against HPV for girls aged 11 to 13 years old is included in the vaccination program for children. This vaccine can protect most cases of cervical cancer, provided that it is administered to HPV infection.
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women younger than 35 years. In the UK alone, where about 63 million people, the disease is diagnosed every day, on average, from eight women. In the world die from this disease tens of thousands of women a year - the most estimated.
What is human papillomavirus?
Speaking of HPV, experts mean large group, which includes more than 150 types of viruses. They are called papilloma viruses because they can lead to the formation of warts
Warts - germ of cancer?
Or papilloma - benign tumors. However, some types of papillomaviruses cause a certain type of cancer; they are sometimes called carcinogenic papillomaviruses.
Of the 150 species of human papillomavirus more than 40 varieties can be transmitted from person to person through sexual contact. Infection can occur when in contact with the genitals, anus, as well as during the occupation of oral sex. Every year papillomavirus infected with dozens or even hundreds of millions of people; its carriers is already at least 60% of the world's population.
In most cases of human papillomavirus infections are asymptomatic, and after some time passes by themselves, but sometimes they persist for many years, and lead to abnormal changes in the cells of various organs.
Who and why we need this vaccine?
Although vaccinated against HPV often do girls can do it and the boys: it not only protects against cervical cancer
Cervical cancer: possible cure
But also reduces the risk of cancer of the vagina, vulva and anal cancer; the latter is found in both women and men.
Vaccination provides long-term protection, although it does not eliminate the need to undergo regular inspection.
Vaccinations against HPV is recommended to do before the start of sexual activity. Usually done in ages from 11 to 13 years, as young people today often begin having sex in 14-15 years, and the probability of infection of HPV is very high, even if a person has had only one sexual partner. Besides, at this age, response to the vaccine is better than in older patients. The minimum age of the patient, which can be vaccinated against human papillomavirus - 9 years.
In some cases, vaccination against HPV can be done:
- Girls aged 13 to 26 years old;
- Young people aged 13 to 21 years.
Vaccination may also be recommended for men up to 26 years old who have sex with men and / or those with weakened immune systems
The immune system - how it works?
due to HIV infection, other diseases or taking certain potent drugs.
How to be vaccinated against HPV
The vaccine is administered in three doses. The second dose is administered in one or two months after the first and third, six months after the first.
In these cases, vaccination against HPV may be contraindicated or vaccination will have to wait:
- The patient previously had severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to any component of the vaccine, or at a previous dose of vaccine. For example, allergy to yeast is a contraindication to the vaccine against human papillomavirus;
- Moderately severe colds, flu, or some other generally harmless disease - patients with such disorders can be vaccinated only after recovery. If the disease is causing the patient only mild symptoms, it can be vaccinated.
HPV vaccine has been available for more than six years, and its use rarely leads to serious health consequences. However, absolutely every drug may cause certain side effects, such as allergic reactions.
However, the probability of a strong reaction that can cause great harm to human health or even lead to his death, is extremely small.
If such allergic reactions occur, their signs appear within minutes or hours after the administration of the vaccine. Signs of a severe allergic reaction can be extensive skin rash, facial swelling and throat, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, dizziness,
Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
Weakness. When these symptoms should immediately seek medical help.
Additionally, there may be the following side effects, which usually are very quickly:
- Pain at the injection site (seen in 8 patients out of 10);
- Redness and swelling (in a case of four);
- Increased body temperature (typically it does not exceed 38.3
- Fainting. As a rule, if the patient happens to faint, it occurs soon after the injection, often - right in the doctor's office. To avoid this, patients are sometimes recommended to sit or lie down for about fifteen minutes after the vaccine was introduced.