Hepatitis B - a dangerous inflammation of the liver - Development

March 18, 2014

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 development of hepatitis B

The development of hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Dentistry

Infection with hepatitis B in the dental office is highly unlikely, since workers (doctors and nurses) are required to follow certain rules of sanitary safety; In some countries doctors are also advised to be vaccinated against hepatitis B Vaccination against hepatitis B - one of the first  Vaccination against hepatitis B - one of the first
 . However, from time to time there are cases of hepatitis B among patients of dentists, and they are recorded not only in third world countries, but also in developed countries such as the United States. One of the most famous cases occurred in 2009, when in a short period of time in a mobile dental clinic in the US infected five people, among them - three patients and two employees. All patients infected teeth were removed, besides, one of them made the restoration of the tooth Restoration of teeth - which way is the safest?  Restoration of teeth - which way is the safest?
 , Another - bleaching. Among the affected workers, one was an assistant doctor, and it was the duty of the other to accompany patients in the waiting room at the dentist's office, and answer questions. None of the infected there were no factors that increase the risk of infection with hepatitis B - that is, they did not take drugs, they had no promiscuity, and so on.

The investigation revealed several violations infectious safety, for example, some tools before reuse only wiped with disinfectant wipes (according to the rules they must be disinfected at a high temperature), and some of the volunteers who worked at the mobile clinic, have not passed the necessary training, and did not know what steps you need to take to protect yourself and others from various infections.

It can be concluded that hepatitis B infection during dental procedures is only possible because of the carelessness or negligence of the dentist or his assistant. Unfortunately, patients themselves can do little to protect themselves from infection; However, if a person goes for a long time to one dentist whose services he consistently satisfied or visit a dentist who advised familiar, perhaps, the risk of infection will be somewhat reduced. In general, the likelihood of contracting hepatitis in the dental office is small, and it is much lower than, for example, those who are doing the piercing or tattoo masters who do not have the appropriate license and rights are not respected infectious safety.


Hepatitis B in newborns

If a pregnant woman is sick with hepatitis B, there is a high probability that at the time of birth of her baby will be infected with the virus. To reduce the risk of infection, children within 12 hours of birth is administered a vaccine against hepatitis B and a preparation containing immunoglobulins against hepatitis B. The combination of these drugs is more effective than the vaccine alone.

Without such treatment in 70-90% of infants born to women with hepatitis B by six months develop chronic hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time

Most children with this disease develop normally and live a full life, and only some of them necessary medical treatment (usually appointed interferon alpha or lamivudine). However, these children need to undergo regular examinations, and in addition, the disease can cause problems after puberty Puberty child - stages of a complex path  Puberty child - stages of a complex path
 If the patient is contagious, he will have to take steps to prevent transmission to their sexual partners. For these reasons, it is necessary before birth talk to your doctor about what measures would be taken to protect the newborn baby from hepatitis B.


The carrier of hepatitis B

About carriers of hepatitis B say when the disease is asymptomatic, while the level of HBV DNA or indistinguishable, or very low. Inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue in the liver of these patients is much less pronounced than with conventional chronic hepatitis, and sometimes biopsy shows that the liver is a completely normal condition. Long-term - for 18 years - observations of carriers of hepatitis B have shown that the risk of developing cirrhosis and liver cancer have very low. However, 20% -30% of patients experience spontaneous reactivation of hepatitis B virus; multiple episodes reactivation can cause progressive damage to the liver. It is estimated that worldwide carriers of hepatitis B virus is 300 to 400 million people.

Hepatitis B - a dangerous inflammation of the liver - Verification

March 18, 2014

  • Hepatitis B - a dangerous inflammation of the liver
  • Check
  • Development
  • Treatment
  • Prevention

 check for hepatitis B

Testing for hepatitis B

Because hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   B can cause liver damage before, he will have noticeable symptoms, physicians may recommend tested for this disease in otherwise healthy people. Timely detection of hepatitis B helps to avoid many of the complications of the infection. Test Hepatitis B can not be recommended for people belonging to the following categories:

  • People living in the person infected with hepatitis B;
  • People who have had sexual contact with infected with hepatitis B;
  • Patients with abnormal levels of liver enzymes;
  • HIV-infected patients;
  • People who have any kind of intravenous drugs;
  • Prisoners;
  • Men who have same-sex relations Sexual relations: how to bring passion  Sexual relations: how to bring passion
  • Patients who are undergoing hemodialysis;
  • Patients taking immunosuppressants (medications that suppress the immune system);
  • Pregnant women.

To identify gepatitV, a number of analyzes:

  • Analysis of surface antigen of hepatitis B virus, this antigen (HBsAg) is part of the outer surface of the virus. Positive test results for the surface antigen indicate that the patient has an active hepatitis B, that can be easily transmitted to others. If the result is negative, it means that the patient is likely not infected.
  • Analysis of the antibody to the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs). This analysis allows us to determine whether a person has antibodies to hepatitis B. The presence of antibodies indicates either that the person has previously been infected with the hepatitis B virus and recovered, or that he has been vaccinated. In any case, a positive test for antibodies indicates that the patient is not infectious and can not contract itself due to vaccine or natural immunity Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
  • Analysis of the antibody to the core antigen of hepatitis B virus (anti-HBc). A positive result of this analysis may indicate that a patient with chronic hepatitis B (the patient may infect others), or that it recovers after an acute infection; it can also indicate the presence of a weak immunity to hepatitis B virus which can not be detected by other methods. How exactly will be interpreted the results of this analysis depends on the results of the other two tests.

If the test results in a patient identified markers of hepatitis B, the doctor may prescribe additional diagnostic procedures to determine the severity of the infection and to evaluate the condition of the liver.

  • Analysis for HBe antigen shows the presence of blood proteins released by HBV infected cells. A positive test result indicates that the amount of virus in the blood is high, and the patient can easily infect another person. If the result is negative, the level of virus is low, and the probability of infection is low.
  • Analysis of the DNA of hepatitis B virus Using this analysis revealed the DNA of the virus particles in the blood, and is determined by the viral load in hepatitis B. Assessment of viral load allows us to understand how effective is the appointment of patient therapy.
  • Liver function tests help determine the extent to which hepatitis B virus had damage to liver cells. To obtain more detailed information about the state of the liver, it can also be biopsied.


Ways of transmission of hepatitis B

Now experts are three main ways of transmission of hepatitis B virus:

  • During childbirth - from mother to child;
  • Sexual contact;
  • The parenteral route of infection - infection occurs through the penetration of the virus in the blood in other ways, for example, during the piercing, tattooing, blood transfusion, use a razor with an infected, and so on.

Hepatitis B virus is not transferred through contaminated food, water, insects, or animals. Numerous studies surface antigen of hepatitis B virus has been detected in all secretions and body fluids of the human body. However, the currently available data are only infectious blood, vaginal (including menses) isolating and sperm.

Infection occurs when a liquid containing a sufficient amount of the virus enters the mucous membranes, or sores on the skin. Determine the likelihood of contracting hepatitis B virus exists among those who inject drugs intravenously, using a syringe to a few people who attend sessions of acupuncture, who does tattoos who hemodialysis Hemodialysis: artificial kidney  Hemodialysis: artificial kidney
 , and so on. Further, when a damaged human skin in contact with the surfaces on which were containing the hepatitis B virus fluids may also cause contamination. This virus is very viable and resistant to high and low temperatures, as well as a number of chemicals. Hepatitis B virus is approximately 100 times more infectious HIV. After contact with any surface, it can remain viable at least for seven days.