Viral meningitis - not uncommon

November 2, 2013

  • Viral meningitis - not uncommon
  • Diagnosis and treatment

 viral meningitis
 When people talk about viral meningitis is usually meant meningitis caused by enterovirus infection pathogens. Viral meningitis is spread widely enough. During the warmer months, when a lot of fruits and vegetables, and many children bathe in small private ponds, often experiencing outbreaks of enterovirus infection.


What enterovirus infections

Enteroviral infections - a group of infectious diseases that are caused by Coxsackie virus, ECHO and enterovirus serotypes 70 and 71. Originators of enterovirus infection with pathogens make polio enterovirus group rights. A distinctive feature of enteroviruses is their ability to multiply in the human intestine and is excreted in faeces. However, this property also have some other viruses such as rotaviruses and adenoviruses.

Coxsackie viruses were first isolated by the American scientists and Dlldorfom Sikklsom in 1948 in the town of Coxsackie, New York. Identify several dozen serotypes of the virus, which can be divided into two groups: A and B. A subgroup serotypes considered pathogens gerpanginy and aseptic serous meningitis. Serotypes of subgroup B - agents Coxsackie myocarditis, pericarditis and meningitis. Seropity A and B are also agents of ARI, intestinal infections and diseases poliomielitopodobnyh.

ECHO-virus (echo viruses) - a human enteric viruses, they got their name from the acronym ECHO - enteric cytopathogenic human orphan viruses - intestinal cytopathic "orphan" viruses man. "Orphaned" they were called because of their role in human pathology long remained unknown. Echo viruses were first isolated from human intestine in the study of polio Robbins and Miller in the middle of the last century. At present there are more than 30 serotypes of the virus that can cause disease in humans: aseptic meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges  Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
 , Encephalitis, fever, intestinal infections, gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, and so on. D.

How is viral meningitis caused by enterovirus? The source of infection of enterovirus infection is a sick man. The virus can be transmitted from patient to health as through the hands and objects contaminated with feces (by contact), and droplets, by coughing and sneezing.

Enterovirus infection is a tremendous one for the clinical course. The same virus in different individuals can cause very different diseases. This may be normal for acute respiratory infection (ARI), herpangina Herpangina - a mild form of the disease  Herpangina - a mild form of the disease
 , Intestinal infection, aseptic meningitis Serous meningitis - a consequence of serious infection  Serous meningitis - a consequence of serious infection
 , Epidemic myalgia, fever and rash on the skin or mucous membranes, myocarditis.

In this form of the disease depends not on the type and properties of enterovirus and features from age and individual reactivity of the body, including the immune system.

Viral meningitis is caused by one or other enteroviruses is usually the same symptoms. To establish a true "culprit" of infection only by laboratory.


Symptoms of viral meningitis

Meningitis - a viral disease, which is caused by enteroviruses and is serous (ie purulent) character. This is one form of enteroviral infection that can develop on the background of some other manifestations (ARI, intestinal infections), as well as their own. Ill enteroviral meningitis usually children and young people.

The incubation period for viral meningitis - from 2 to 12 days. After that viral meningitis symptoms develop rapidly and suddenly. High fever (39 - 40˚), there are chills, headache and vomiting. Sometimes the very first hours of the disease the child may lose consciousness, he may go into convulsions.

The patient's face is red, and the nasolabial triangle remains pale. Sometimes there are cold sores on the lips and nose. Some patients on the face, trunk and extremities appears maculopapular rash, which disappears after a few hours. The conjunctiva and sclera eyes reddened, they are clearly visible small blood vessels. There are throat pain and redness in the throat. There are bradycardia (slowing of the heart rate), and constipation. Particularly rapidly develop symptoms of viral meningitis in children.

Meningeal symptoms appear on the second or third day of the disease. They precede the headache of various intensity and vomiting associated with developing acute rise in intracranial pressure. The patient has an increased skin sensitivity, photophobia, intolerance to loud sounds.

Because reflex tonic contraction of the muscles of the body of the patient takes a characteristic meningeal posture: head thrown back, body arched, stomach in, hand drawn to his chest and knees to the stomach. But such a characteristic pose with viral meningitis occurs not always, meningeal symptoms are often worn character.

Almost always there is rigidity (stiffness) neck - because of their stress patient can not touch chin to chest. Perhaps the appearance of facial paresis and oculomotor nerve, which is manifested in the form of facial asymmetry and strabismus.

Febrile period lasts from 3 to 10 days, after which the temperature drops, often very rapidly - critical. At the same time have subsided signs of viral meningitis. The disease usually lasts no more than one to two weeks, but much longer the hold changes in the cerebrospinal fluid - for her full recovery will take at least a month. Viral meningitis in children Meningitis in children - a dangerous disease  Meningitis in children - a dangerous disease
   more severe than in adults. At the same time, the younger the child, the harder it has the illness.

The prognosis of enteroviral meningitis generally favorable. The effects of viral meningitis usually appear in the form of asthenia (weakness, lethargy, irritability), which can hold from a few weeks to several months. Sometimes developed recurrences, which occur much more easily.

Chickenpox: the incubation period - can prevent infection?

February 19th, 2014

 chicken pox incubation period
 Chickenpox - the incubation period of the child's infection is the time from the moment of infection (it can be very brief contact with a sick chickenpox) until the first signs of skin infection. Typically, the first manifestation of chickenpox is a characteristic rash with blisters.


Why do I get chicken pox infection of children

Chickenpox - an acute infectious disease caused by a herpes virus - varicella zoster. Today, it is known that after recovery from chickenpox virus from the body is not completely removed, and stored in the nerve cells. By reducing the varicella zoster immune virus can reactivate, multiply, down the nerve endings in the skin and cause disease. But re-infection, as a rule, it affects only certain areas of the skin above the nerve branches, and is known as herpes zoster Shingles and chickenpox - from the same pathogen  Shingles and chickenpox - from the same pathogen
   or depriving.

Chickenpox - a highly contagious disease. The patient becomes infectious for about a day before the rash appears. It can be a source of infection for the entire period of lesions as well as for an additional five days after the last elements of a rash on the skin. Transmission from an infected person to a healthy occurs through airborne droplets when speaking, coughing, sneezing and so on. And since the virus varicella zoster is very volatile, infection is possible, and at a considerable distance from the patient (up to more than 20 m), including the fresh air (infectious agent transmitted by air currents in the wind), while the infectiousness of other infections in the open air sharply reduced.


The incubation period for chickenpox - that occurs in the body of the infected?

Since the chickenpox infection before the onset of the first elements of the skin rash usually goes from 10 days to three weeks. But the average incubation period for chickenpox lasts about two weeks.

The place of the implementation of the chickenpox virus (Atrium) is a mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. To introduce into the cells of the mucosa, the virus begins to multiply rapidly, and the development cycle of the virus takes place in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells.

After the multiplication of the virus chickenpox fall into the lymph nodes, where they can accumulate, and then through the lymphatic vessels into the blood. Moment of getting chickenpox virus in the blood (viremia) coincides with the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease - the body temperature rises, there is a general malaise.

With bloodstream chickenpox virus spread throughout the body and enter the epithelial cells of the skin and mucous membranes, multiply there and cause the appearance characteristic of chickenpox changes on the skin (rash).

The skin and mucous membrane forms vesicles with serous content, wherein at a high concentration is the infectious agent.

Chickenpox virus can also affect nerve cells (neurons) of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures (including the cerebellum), intervertebral nerve ganglia (in which he maintained even after recovery throughout life).


The incubation period for chickenpox in children and adults

How long is the incubation period for chickenpox in various contingents of patients? Typically, the duration of the incubation period, varicella not related to the age of the patient. The incubation period for chickenpox in adults Chickenpox in adults - a threat to life  Chickenpox in adults - a threat to life
   and children usually lasts from 10 to 21-23 days, but usually lasts for about two weeks.

Susceptibility to chickenpox virus most children by the year (through breastfeeding, and if the mother once had chickenpox) 10-12 years. At this time practically any contact with a sick chickenpox leads to the disease, which in most cases is mild.

Adolescents and adults who do not always become infected with chickenpox. But if you get sick, you get sick heavier than small children.


Can anyone help in infected the incubation period for chickenpox

If at the time of contact with a sick chicken pox took less than four days, to prevent the disease or reduce the risk of serious infection is possible by means of immunoglobulin - a drug made from the patient's blood and serum containing antibodies to varicella zoster. After administration of immunoglobulin, or you can not get sick at all, or suffer a mild chickenpox Chickenpox is a mild - whether produced strong immunity?  Chickenpox is a mild - whether produced strong immunity?
 Usually without complications.

Introduction immunoglobulin recommended for people with weakened immune systems Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
   and pregnant women who have not had chickenpox before and have been in contact with sick this infection.

After the fourth day of the incubation period can only observe the man who had been in contact with the patient, and try as soon as possible to identify the onset of the disease.

Galina Romanenko

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  • chickenpox