- Viral meningitis - not uncommon
- Diagnosis and treatment
When people talk about viral meningitis is usually meant meningitis caused by enterovirus infection pathogens. Viral meningitis is spread widely enough. During the warmer months, when a lot of fruits and vegetables, and many children bathe in small private ponds, often experiencing outbreaks of enterovirus infection.
What enterovirus infections
Enteroviral infections - a group of infectious diseases that are caused by Coxsackie virus, ECHO and enterovirus serotypes 70 and 71. Originators of enterovirus infection with pathogens make polio enterovirus group rights. A distinctive feature of enteroviruses is their ability to multiply in the human intestine and is excreted in faeces. However, this property also have some other viruses such as rotaviruses and adenoviruses.
Coxsackie viruses were first isolated by the American scientists and Dlldorfom Sikklsom in 1948 in the town of Coxsackie, New York. Identify several dozen serotypes of the virus, which can be divided into two groups: A and B. A subgroup serotypes considered pathogens gerpanginy and aseptic serous meningitis. Serotypes of subgroup B - agents Coxsackie myocarditis, pericarditis and meningitis. Seropity A and B are also agents of ARI, intestinal infections and diseases poliomielitopodobnyh.
ECHO-virus (echo viruses) - a human enteric viruses, they got their name from the acronym ECHO - enteric cytopathogenic human orphan viruses - intestinal cytopathic "orphan" viruses man. "Orphaned" they were called because of their role in human pathology long remained unknown. Echo viruses were first isolated from human intestine in the study of polio Robbins and Miller in the middle of the last century. At present there are more than 30 serotypes of the virus that can cause disease in humans: aseptic meningitis
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
, Encephalitis, fever, intestinal infections, gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, and so on. D.
How is viral meningitis caused by enterovirus? The source of infection of enterovirus infection is a sick man. The virus can be transmitted from patient to health as through the hands and objects contaminated with feces (by contact), and droplets, by coughing and sneezing.
Enterovirus infection is a tremendous one for the clinical course. The same virus in different individuals can cause very different diseases. This may be normal for acute respiratory infection (ARI), herpangina
Herpangina - a mild form of the disease
, Intestinal infection, aseptic meningitis
Serous meningitis - a consequence of serious infection
, Epidemic myalgia, fever and rash on the skin or mucous membranes, myocarditis.
In this form of the disease depends not on the type and properties of enterovirus and features from age and individual reactivity of the body, including the immune system.
Viral meningitis is caused by one or other enteroviruses is usually the same symptoms. To establish a true "culprit" of infection only by laboratory.
Symptoms of viral meningitis
Meningitis - a viral disease, which is caused by enteroviruses and is serous (ie purulent) character. This is one form of enteroviral infection that can develop on the background of some other manifestations (ARI, intestinal infections), as well as their own. Ill enteroviral meningitis usually children and young people.
The incubation period for viral meningitis - from 2 to 12 days. After that viral meningitis symptoms develop rapidly and suddenly. High fever (39 - 40˚), there are chills, headache and vomiting. Sometimes the very first hours of the disease the child may lose consciousness, he may go into convulsions.
The patient's face is red, and the nasolabial triangle remains pale. Sometimes there are cold sores on the lips and nose. Some patients on the face, trunk and extremities appears maculopapular rash, which disappears after a few hours. The conjunctiva and sclera eyes reddened, they are clearly visible small blood vessels. There are throat pain and redness in the throat. There are bradycardia (slowing of the heart rate), and constipation. Particularly rapidly develop symptoms of viral meningitis in children.
Meningeal symptoms appear on the second or third day of the disease. They precede the headache of various intensity and vomiting associated with developing acute rise in intracranial pressure. The patient has an increased skin sensitivity, photophobia, intolerance to loud sounds.
Because reflex tonic contraction of the muscles of the body of the patient takes a characteristic meningeal posture: head thrown back, body arched, stomach in, hand drawn to his chest and knees to the stomach. But such a characteristic pose with viral meningitis occurs not always, meningeal symptoms are often worn character.
Almost always there is rigidity (stiffness) neck - because of their stress patient can not touch chin to chest. Perhaps the appearance of facial paresis and oculomotor nerve, which is manifested in the form of facial asymmetry and strabismus.
Febrile period lasts from 3 to 10 days, after which the temperature drops, often very rapidly - critical. At the same time have subsided signs of viral meningitis. The disease usually lasts no more than one to two weeks, but much longer the hold changes in the cerebrospinal fluid - for her full recovery will take at least a month. Viral meningitis in children
Meningitis in children - a dangerous disease
more severe than in adults. At the same time, the younger the child, the harder it has the illness.
The prognosis of enteroviral meningitis generally favorable. The effects of viral meningitis usually appear in the form of asthenia (weakness, lethargy, irritability), which can hold from a few weeks to several months. Sometimes developed recurrences, which occur much more easily.