Placenta - the protection and promotion of the fetus

August 27, 2009

 Placenta - an organ, equally owned by mother and child. She did not immediately, but after its fabric will be formed, it will assume all the work necessary to ensure the fetus to develop substances and excretion of metabolic products of the mother of the fetus. The placenta protects the fetus from infection, missing his body antibodies from the mother's blood. The placenta or afterbirth - a temporary organ formed during pregnancy and provides a link with the mother of the fetus.

Mature placenta has the form a disk with a diameter of about 20 cm, 3 cm thick and weighing about a pound (or slightly less than 1/5 of the weight of the fruit). The placenta is limited to two plates - chorionic and basal, between which there are chorionic villi (fetal outer shell, covered with hairs that grow into the uterine lining, participating in the formation of the placenta) and intervillous space. By the fetal surface of the placenta is attached umbilical cord and radiating vessels.

Normally, the placenta is usually in the mucosa of the rear wall of the uterus. Fully placenta is formed by the end of the 12th week of pregnancy, then its structure is changing, adapting to the needs of the growing fetus. On the fifth month of pregnancy there is an increase in weight of the placenta, and a month before the birth she reaches full maturity.

 Placenta - the protection and promotion of the fetus

Placental function

The placenta carries metabolism Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting  Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting
   between mother and fetus, serving as gas exchange, trophic, endocrine, excretory and protective, it has immunogenic properties. Placenta is not only common, but also shares the genetically heterogeneous organisms of mother and fetus, preventing the occurrence of an immunological conflict between them.

  • Gas exchange function is the transport of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide. Oxygen from the maternal blood enters the blood stream by penetrating the fruit, in the opposite direction is transported carbon dioxide.
  • Trophic function - is the transport of proteins, fats and carbohydrates from the mother to the blood of the fetus. The fetus through the placenta receives nutrients, metabolic products come back (excretory function).
  • Endocrine function. The placenta is an endocrine gland that secretes hormones that promote the development of adaptive changes in a woman's body, essential for the growth and development of the fetus.

 Placenta - the protection and promotion of the fetus

It formed:

  • chorionic gonadotropin, which supports the functional activity of the placenta and stimulate the production of large amounts of progesterone by the corpus luteum of the ovary; This hormone is also called the pregnancy hormone, it begins to produce in the first weeks of pregnancy, reaching a maximum of 12 weeks, after which it decreased and the number disappears from the blood of a woman in a week after giving birth;
  • placental lactogen - promotes the maturation and development of the mammary glands during pregnancy and prepare them for feeding baby Breastfeeding - a personal choice  Breastfeeding - a personal choice
  • prolactin - contributes to the development and release of breast milk;
  • progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology  Progesterone - norm and pathology
   - During pregnancy it prevents the maturation of new eggs and rejection uterine lining, stimulates breast growth, inhibits the contractile activity of the pregnant uterus;
  • estrogen - cause overgrowth of uterine lining, help to strengthen the muscle of the uterus before delivery.

The protective function of the placenta is the placenta is permeable to maternal antibodies Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity  Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
   to various infections, providing immunological protection of the child, not only during pregnancy, but also in the first months after birth. The "smart" placenta prevents the occurrence of immune conflict between organisms of mother and child - immune cells of the mother, recognizing a foreign object could cause rejection of the fetus.

 Placenta - the protection and promotion of the fetus

What pathological changes can occur in the placenta

There are improper location of the placenta and its attachment. Serious complication for the mother and the fetus is premature detachment of normally situated placenta.

Under the influence of infection or fetal discharge (meconium) in the placenta can occur inflammatory process (the placenta). Most often infection occurs through the cervix of the uterus, it may also be a viral infection (e.g., with influenza). This inflammation can lead to infection of the fetus, the development of fetal malnutrition (underweight) and hypoxia (oxygen starvation).

When late toxicosis of pregnancy may change the lumen of the blood vessels of the placenta, which is why it is reduced in size, which necessarily affects its functions and, therefore, the condition of the fetus.

Sometimes the placenta develop tumors more often they are vascular in nature (hemangiomas) and are diagnosed after the birth of the placenta.

The placenta - a miracle of nature, the mechanism by which there is a complete "service" and the protection of the child in the mother's body.

  Galina Romanenko

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Inguinal hernia in pregnancy: planned operation is not carried out

August 15, 2014

 inguinal hernia during pregnancy
 Women often inguinal hernia Inguinal hernia - dangerous or not?  Inguinal hernia - dangerous or not?
   pregnancy. Its formation is due to the influence of several factors. Herniation accompanied by characteristic symptoms. If it appears necessary to consult with your doctor. The specialist will decide what will take generations. It also gives recommendations that should be observed during the whole period of pregnancy.


Why is there

Inguinal hernias occur in women is rare. But during pregnancy the risk of this disease increases.

Inguinal canal - a small slit-like space, which is located in the abdominal wall. Through this education takes place in women the round ligament of the uterus. In the formation of inguinal hernia through a channel under the skin out internal organs covered with peritoneum. The contents of the hernia sac are most often bowel loops and the greater omentum.

Inguinal hernia in pregnant women occurs against a background of increased intra-abdominal pressure, the growth of which is associated with an increase in uterine The increase in the uterus - when the rate goes into pathology  The increase in the uterus - when the rate goes into pathology
   in size.

During the period of gestation of the child muscle tone anterior abdominal wall is reduced. There are additional factors that lead to the formation of hernias and their growth. It:

  • Lifting weights;
  • Significant physical exertion on the background of the weakness of the muscles of the abdominal wall;
  • Chronic cough;
  • Constipation.

Hernia consists of several elements. Hernial ring - a hole in the abdominal wall through which the hernial contents out (internal organs of the abdominal cavity). Outside these bodies are covered with peritoneum - a thin sheath of connective tissue that lines the inside of the abdominal cavity. This peritoneum forms the hernial sac.



Inguinal hernia in pregnancy is accompanied by the same symptoms that occur in this disease to other people. The woman says that in the groin area is formed protrusion. It is soft, painless at a palpation and has elastic consistency.

Typically, with increasing gestational age an increase in the size of an inguinal hernia. Women may experience discomfort and pain at the protrusions. This is especially true during the third trimester. Some say that the pain is given in the sacral or lumbar region.

In the upright position inguinal hernia becomes more noticeable. If a woman falls, the diverticulum becomes smaller or disappears completely. An important feature of hernia - increasing its size when coughing, and exertion.

The greater the protrusion, the more uncomfortable it gives pregnant during exercise and walking. Hard urination, constipation and aggravated Constipation - Watch out for food  Constipation - Watch out for food

If your finger to press the protrusion, it is easy to right. At this point, it can be heard rumbling.



The infringement - the most common complication of a hernia. At the same time the internal organs, which fell into the hernial sac, squeezed in the inguinal ring, and their blood supply is disrupted. Infringement is usually caused by a sharp increase in intra-abdominal pressure, for example, with a strong cough or significant physical exertion.

Disrupted blood flow to the organs that are located inside the hernia sac. If in the near future will not be given medical help, there they necrosis (necrosis). Against this background, it can develop peritonitis - inflammation of the peritoneum.

A woman in pain, not reduce a protrusion becomes tense. Joined by nausea and vomiting.



The most effective way to treat an inguinal hernia Inguinal hernia - dangerous or not?  Inguinal hernia - dangerous or not?
   - A surgical intervention. But during pregnancy is the treatment planning is not carried out. Exceptions are cases of infringement of hernia, in which the surgery is performed on an emergency basis.

To protrusion does not increase, your doctor may recommend wearing a support bandage, special exercises and massage. Often the band is already required in the first trimester, and it must be worn throughout pregnancy.

It is necessary to avoid substantial exercise and lifting weights, as it leads to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, because of which the protrusion grows in size. It is important to follow the diet, which can be used to prevent the occurrence of constipation and increased gas production.


Childbirth and inguinal hernia

If there was an inguinal hernia during pregnancy, the doctor decides which path will take delivery. Independent labor allowed if a protrusion is small (assuming the availability of a special bandage). When vain attempts during childbirth obstetrician and hand holds the place of a hernia to prevent its infringement.

In cases where an inguinal hernia is large, and there is a concomitant pathology (eg malposition in the uterus, complications of pregnancy, labor disturbances), perform caesarean section. Many women notice that postpartum inguinal hernia disappears. If it does not, then it held elective surgery.



In order to prevent the formation of an inguinal hernia, the pregnant woman should follow some recommendations. It is necessary to wear a special bandage that will keep the stomach. This reduces the load on the abdominal wall.

Also, to strengthen the muscles in this period it is necessary to do gymnastics. Be sure to follow the diet. Because the diet is recommended to exclude products, the use of which results in increased gas production and the emergence of constipation. Also, do not allow excessive increases of body weight during this period.

If the groin during pregnancy appeared protrusion, then the woman should consult with a specialist. Pregnancy should comply with all recommendations of the physician to prevent the increase in the size of the hernia or infringement. Pregnancy - is a contraindication to surgery hernia repair in a planned manner. But if there is infringement, you will need emergency surgery.

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  • inguinal hernia in women