Nowadays obstetricians recommend to plan pregnancy and to conduct a thorough examination before this couple. This saves a pregnant woman from a variety of problems that may occur with infection or other diseases (internal organs, endocrine and nervous systems, metabolism
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
and so forth) that have adverse effects on the fetus.
What is the placenta and placental insufficiency
The placenta - a temporary organ that is produced during pregnancy and provides a link with the mother of the fetus, that is, eating and breathing fetus. When failure of some functions of the placenta (hormonal, metabolic
Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting
et al.) there is placental (fetoplacental) insufficiency (FPI), which can lead to serious violations of the fetus.
Violation of the placenta can occur under the influence of various factors, such as chronic diseases of internal organs, endocrine diseases, exposure to toxins (alcohol, smoking, drugs), infections (including sexually transmitted diseases), trauma of the walls of the uterus during the abortion, malnutrition , medication (especially in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy), and so on.
Acute placental insufficiency
Placental insufficiency can be both acute and chronic. Acute placental insufficiency occurs against a background of acute disorders of utero-placental circulation. Such situations often occur in premature detachment of normally situated placenta and cause abortion.
Chronic placental insufficiency
Chronic placental insufficiency occurs gradually as a result of violations of adaptive mechanisms in conjunction with disorders of blood circulation in the placenta, in violation of its power and slow reverse development. This process may offset when the body cope with disturbances (it does not require treatment) and decompensated - the body is unable to cope with disturbances, the woman needs help.
Absolute (asthma) placental insufficiency occurs in severe and is accompanied by oxygen starvation of the fetus, which can lead to its destruction. Pregnancy in these women often occurs on the background of the threat of interruption. There are two main forms of chronic placental insufficiency, which may be combined:
- violation of the Food, in which disturbed absorption and assimilation of nutritious foods, as well as the synthesis of metabolic products of their own in the fetus;
- respiratory dysfunction due to insufficient supply of oxygen.
Chronic placental insufficiency can cause intrauterine growth retardation or fetal death.
Chronic placental insufficiency eventually leads to the fact that the fruit does not get the required amount of nutrients and oxygen, is lagging behind in weight and development. This condition is called intrauterine growth retardation
Fetal development - week after week
(IUGR). In contrast, children with low birth weight who were born perfectly normal, these children may suffer development of internal organs, the nervous system, the immune system
Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
For timely diagnosis of fetal growth retardation held control over its growth (height measurement of uterine fundus above the vagina), determination of placental hormones in the mother's blood, the registration of fetal heart rate (cardiotocography, in order to avoid hypoxia - lack of oxygen), fetal ultrasound. Typically, children with a history of IUGR and birth lag behind their peers, often sick, they may have may have problems with memory, concentration, and perseverance. But all this can be overcome.
Treatment of placental insufficiency
Chronic placental insufficiency, which manifests itself in growth retardation, must be treated in order to normalize the metabolism and maintain the vital functions of the fetus. At the same time, the sooner treatment is started, the more effective it will be. Treatment must necessarily be individualized and take into account, the cause of placental insufficiency.
Women with placental insufficiency need a rest, limit physical activity, high-grade feed.
Of the medicines used drugs relaxing the uterus to dilate blood vessels, reducing blood viscosity and facilitate its passage through the capillaries, improve nutrition of the placenta (eg, aktovegin), vitamins (especially vitamin C and E) and amino acids (they help to normalize the blood and enrich it substances necessary for the construction of organs and tissues of the fetus, its synthesis of enzymes and hormones) enriching blood with oxygen (e.g. oxygen-enriched breathing air pressure in a pressure chamber, etc.).
Typically, these treatments produce results, and children are born without serious violations. But if the fetus continues to lag behind in weight, there are signs of oxygen deficiency, then held an emergency delivery.
Remember that to worry about the welfare of the child is necessary before pregnancy, which is why it is recommended to plan the birth of a child.