- Hay fever - from season to season
- How is
What is hay fever and its causes
Hay fever, or hay fever - an allergic disease caused by pollen. When hay fever affects mainly the respiratory tract and mucous membranes of the eyes. Hay fever is common in Europe and North America, but there is almost no indigenous population of Japan, Mongolia, South America and South Africa - is associated with racial features.
The cause of hay fever pollen is wind-pollinated plants, which are divided into three groups:
- Trees and shrubs (eg poplar, birch, hazel), they cause the spring peak incidence
- grains like wild (eg, bluegrass), and cultured (rye, maize), they cause the spring-summer aggravation of diseases;
- weeds (eg, ragweed, wormwood) - have the most pronounced allergenic activity.
Pollen allergens are protein complexes with carbohydrates or pigments pollen. Of the pollen of various plants has been allocated from 3 to 15 different allergens.
How is an allergic reaction
Pollen has the ability to penetrate through the epithelium of the nasal mucosa and into the bloodstream. The first contact with pollen antigen sensitization occurs in the blood, that is to neutralize specific antibodies are produced that by sticking with the antigen, removes it from the body. Outwardly Sensitization usually does not proyavlyaetsya.Pri repeated ingestion of pollen allergy because of violations of immunity
Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
produced too much, they bring not only benefits but also harm causing antigen-antibody combination release of a large number of mediators (transmitters such as histamine) of allergic reactions, which are the direct cause of all the subsequent outcome variables.
How does hay fever
Hay fever is characterized by seasonality. Typical symptoms of hay fever - inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes (conjunctivitis) and nose (rhinitis).
Conjunctivitis starts with eye irritation, tearing, itching, which is combined with a strong itch in the nose and throat. From the nose there are abundant liquid separation, followed by bouts of sneezing. The process may involve the eustachian tubes (ear drops), the vocal cords (hoarseness).
The most severe manifestation is pollen hay fever or hay asthma attacks that occur similar to asthma attacks. It appears shortness of breath, the desire to clear his throat. Then begins a dry cough
Dry cough - whether to worry about it?
Which contribute to increasing breathlessness. The chest expanded considerably lengthened breath, wheezing in the lungs could be heard in the distance. An attack can last from several minutes to several hours and ends with the appearance of cough and discharge of small amounts of clear sputum.
Sometimes hay fever occurs in the form of urticaria (red, sprawling in front of the blisters on the skin) and edema
Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
Angioneurotic - sharply growing and rapidly passing allergic swelling of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and mucous membranes. Hay fever can manifest dermatitis (skin inflammation) with severe, debilitating itching and various kinds of rashes on the skin, until the eczema. All these manifestations reflect the general condition of the patient, he appeared weakness, fatigue, headache, insomnia.
Diagnosis of hay fever
The manifestations of hay fever are very common, but to clarify, pollen of plants causes allergy, consult an allergist. Allergist identifies the source of allergies with special allergy diagnostic skin tests, which are as applied to scarified (scratched) skin allergen followed by evaluation of local changes. For such samples have special sets of pollen allergens.
The patient's blood during acute hay fever, you can find a large number of some types of white blood cells (eosinophils and lymphocytes), of which always increases in allergic reactions.
The treatment of hay fever
The most effective specific hyposensitization, which is based on the administration of allergen to the patient, the disease caused in gradually increasing doses, which reduces the sensitivity to a given allergen.
Held also nonspecific desensitization, which aims - to reduce the overall allergic disposition of the body. For this purpose appointed antihistamines (tavegil, klaretin), which block the output of histamine from cells, thereby preventing the occurrence of allergic reactions. In severe cases, also apply corticosteroid hormones, reducing the manifestations of all allergic reactions. To cleanse the blood from food allergies, you can use methods such as gemasorbtsiya and plasmapheresis.
Locally during severe nasal congestion (but no more than 3-5 days) may be used vasoconstrictor drops (Naphthyzinum, galazolin et al.). With prolonged use of such drops occur persistent, difficult to treat enlargement of blood vessels of the nose.
Hay fever is easier to prevent than to cure, so people who are allergic to pollen, the flowering is recommended to leave the area.